Psychometric Properties of the Children’s Future Thinking Questionnaire in Iranian Children

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant professor, Institute for Cognitive and Brain Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 2. M.S. student in Cognitive Rehabilitation. Institute for Cognitive and Brain Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 M.S. student in Cognitive Rehabilitation. Institute for Cognitive and Brain Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


Aim: Prospection is a set of cognitive abilities that includes predicting possible future states and needs. This skill helps people to plan, overcome obstacles and achieve success. One of the novel tools for measuring the ability of future-oriented thinking in children is the Children’s Future Thinking Questionnaire (Mazachowsky & Mahy, 2020), the psychometric properties of which have not been studied for use in the Iranian child population. Method: This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of elementary school students (139 boys and 61 girls) who were studying in the academic year 1399-1400 and the questionnaire along with the demographic checklist was provided to their parents online. Confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency of subscales, Guttman split-half, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of Children’s Future Thinking Questionnaire (CFTQ) using LISREL8.8 and SPSS24 statistical analysis software. Results: The content analysis of the CFTQ showed that the five-factor model has a moderate fit scale and validity construct. Also, Cronbach's alpha values and, Guttman split-half for the total score of the questionnaire were 0.89 and 0.85, respectively, which indicates the appropriate reliability of this questionnaire. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the CFTQ has good validity and reliability in the Iranian population and the present researchers recommend Persian version of the CFTQ to assess cognitive abilities related to future-oriented in Iranian children.


  • Aspinwall, L. G. (2005). The Psychology of Future-Oriented Thinking: From Achievement to Proactive Coping, Adaptation, and Aging. Motivation and Emotion29(4), 203–235. [Link]
  • Atance, C. M., & O’Neill, D. K. (2001). Episodic future thinking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences5(12), 533–539. [Link]
  • Atance, C. M., & O’Neill, D. K. (2005). The emergence of episodic future thinking in humans. Learning and Motivation36(2), 126–144. [Link]
  • Harner, L. (1981b). Children Talk about the Time and Aspect of Actions. Child Development52(2), 498. [Link]
  • Kamawar, D., Connolly, K., Astle-Rahim, A., Smygwaty, S., & Vendetti, C. (2018). Preschoolers’ Saving Behavior: The Role of Planning and Self-Control. Child Development90(4), e407–e420. [Link]
  • Mahy, C. E., Moses, L. J., & Kliegel, M. (2014). The development of prospective memory in children: An executive framework. Developmental Review34(4), 305–326. [Link]
  • Marroquín, B., Boyle, C. C., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Stanton, A. L. (2016). Using emotion as information in future-oriented cognition: Individual differences in the context of state negative affect. Personality and Individual Differences95, 121–126. [Link]
  • Mazachowsky, T. R., & Mahy, C. E. V. (2020). Constructing the Children’s Future Thinking Questionnaire: A reliable and valid measure of children’s future-oriented cognition. Developmental Psychology56(4), 756–772. [Link]
  • McCormack, T., & Hoerl, C. (2020). Children’s future-oriented cognition. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 58, 215–253. [Link]
  • Metcalf, J. L., & Atance, C. M. (2011). Do preschoolers save to benefit their future selves? Cognitive Development26(4), 371–382. [Link]
  • Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2016). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. Sage publications.[Link]
  • Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science244(4907), 933–938. [Link]
  • Olde Dubbelink, L. M. E., & Geurts, H. M. (2017). Planning Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders47(4), 1148–1165. [Link]
  • Osvath, M., & Martin-Ordas, G. (2014). The future of future-oriented cognition in non-humans: theory and the empirical case of the great apes. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences369(1655), 20130486. [Link]
  • Papagno, C. (2018). Memory deficits. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 377–393. [Link]
  • Schacter, D. L., Benoit, R. G., & Szpunar, K. K. (2017). Episodic future thinking: mechanisms and functions. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences17, 41–50. [Link]
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Railton, P., Baumeister, R. F., & Sripada, C. (2013). Navigating Into the Future or Driven by the Past. Perspectives on Psychological Science8(2), 119–141. [Link]
  • Shipp, A. J., & Aeon, B. (2019). Temporal focus: Thinking about the past, present, and future. Current Opinion in Psychology26, 37–43. [Link]
  • Szpunar, K. K., Spreng, R. N., & Schacter, D. L. (2014). A taxonomy of prospection: Introducing an organizational framework for future-oriented cognition: Fig. 1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111(52), 18414–18421. [Link]
  • Vásquez-Echeverría, A., Tomás, C., & Cruz, O. (2019). The development of episodic foresight in preschoolers: the role of socioeconomic status, parental future orientation, and family context. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica32(1). [Link]