Developing a Scale for Assessing Feasibility of Psychoeducational and Psychotherapy Protocols: A Guide for Researchers

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran



Aim: Effectiveness of educational and therapeutic programs in interventional studies, need the initial evaluation of the program which is provided in the feasibility study. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed review of the feasibility study and its components, as well as to provide a scale for researchers to evaluate the feasibility of psychological programs and protocols. Method: First, according to the feasibility components, a checklist was prepared in the form of 54 questions. After compiling a checklist to examine the content validity ratio and content validity index, 12 experts were selected using the purposive sampling method and scored the appropriateness and necessity of each question. Results: The appropriateness of the questions was obtained from 0/83 Up to 1, and the results of S-CVI/ UA and S-CVI/ Ave and Cronbach’s alph showed that the present checklist has a high content validity index and reliability. Conclusion: Feasibility studies are critical to the successful implementation of randomized controlled trial interventions as one of the important studies to support the effectiveness of the intervention and provide strong evidence for the acceptability of an intervention and its implementation in the long term.


فراهانی، حجت­اله.، و روشن چسلی، رسول. (1399). ضروریات طراحی و رواسازی مقیاس‌های روانشناختی: راهنمایی برای پژوهشگران. روانشناسی بالینی و شخصیت. 17(2 پیاپی 33)، 212-197.
Armstrong, T. S., Cohen, M. Z., Eriksen, L., & Cleeland, C. (2005). Content validity of self-report measurement instruments: an illustration from the development of the Brain Tumor Module of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory. Oncology nursing forum, 32)3(, 669.
Arnold, D. M., Burns, K. E., Adhikari, N. K., Kho, M. E., Meade, M. O., & Cook, D. J. (2009). The design and interpretation of pilot trials in clinical research in critical care. Critical care medicine, 37(1), 69-S74.
Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1997). Statistics notes: Cronbach's alpha. Bmj314(7080), 572.
Bowen, D. J., Kreuter, M., Spring, B., Cofta-Woerpel, L., Linnan, L., Weiner, D., Bakken, S., Kaplan, C. P., Squiers, L., & Fabrizio, C. (2009). How we design feasibility studies. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(5), 452-457.
Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment. Vol. 17: Sage publications.
Collins, D. (2003). Pretesting survey instruments: an overview of cognitive methods. Quality of life research12(3), 229-238.
Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Michie, S., Nazareth, I., & Petticrew, M. (2008). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. Bmj, 337.
Davis, L. L. (1992). Instrument review: Getting the most from a panel of experts. Applied nursing research, 5(4), 194-197.
Eldridge, S. M., Lancaster, G. A., Campbell, M. J., Thabane, L., Hopewell, S., Coleman, C. L., & Bond, C. M. (2016). Defining feasibility and pilot studies in preparation for randomised controlled trials: development of a conceptual framework. PloS one, 11(3), e0150205.
Gadke, D. L., Kratochwill, T. R., & Gettinger, M. (2021). Incorporating feasibility protocols in intervention research. Journal of School Psychology, 84, 1-18.
Haynes, S. N., Richard, D., & Kubany, E. S. (1995). Content validity in psychological assessment: A functional approach to concepts and methods. Psychological assessment7(3), 238. DOI: 10.1037/1040-3590.7.3.238.
Jones, T. A., Olds, T. S., Currow, D. C., & Williams, M. T. (2017). Feasibility and pilot studies in palliative care research: a systematic review. Journal of pain and symptom management, 54(1), 139-151. e134.
Kazdin, A. E. (2018). Innovations in psychosocial interventions and their delivery: Leveraging cutting-edge science to improve the world’s mental health. Oxford University Press.
Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575.
Moore, L., Hallingberg, B., Wight, D., Turley, R., Segrott, J., Craig, P., ... & Moore, G. (2018). Exploratory studies to inform full-scale evaluations of complex public health interventions: the need for guidance. J Epidemiol Community Health. 72(10): 865–866.
Orsmond, G. I., & Cohn, E. S. (2015). The distinctive features of a feasibility study: objectives and guiding questions. OTJR: occupation, participation and health, 35(3), 169-177.
Sanson-Fisher, R. W., Bonevski, B., Green, L. W., & D’Este, C. (2007). Limitations of the randomized controlled trial in evaluating population-based health interventions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2), 155-161.
Saw, S. M., & Ng, T. P. (2001). The design and assessment of questionnaires in clinical research. Singapore medical journal42(3), 131-135.
Shi, J., Mo, X., & Sun, Z. (2012). Content validity index in scale development. Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban= Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences37(2), 152-155.
Stein, K. F., Sargent, J. T., & Rafaels, N. (2007). Intervention research: establishing fidelity of the independent variable in nursing clinical trials. Nursing research56(1), 54-62.
Stone, D. H. (1993). Design a questionnaire. British Medical Journal307(6914), 1264-1266.
Tickle-Degnen, L. (2013). Nuts and bolts of conducting feasibility studies. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(2), 171-176.
Wong, P. T. P., & Roy, S. (2018). Critique of positive psychology and positive interventions. In N. J. L. Brown, T. Lomas, & F. J. Eiroa-Orosa (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of critical positive psychology (pp. 142–160). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Yamada, J., Stevens, B., Sidani, S., Watt‐Watson, J., & De Silva, N. (2010). Content validity of a process evaluation checklist to measure intervention implementation fidelity of the EPIC intervention. Worldviews on EvidenceBased Nursing7(3), 158-164.
Zamanzadeh, V., Ghahramanian, A., Rassouli, M., Abbaszadeh, A., Alavi-Majd, H., & Nikanfar, A. R. (2015). Design and implementation content validity study: development of an instrument for measuring patient-centered communication. Journal of caring sciences4(2), 165.