The Interactive Role of Couples' Self-Compassion in Cognitive Emotion Regulation of Themselves and Their Spouses: Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling

Document Type : Original Article


1 Master of family Clinical Psychology , Department of Family Research, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant professor of educational psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D Student in Clinical Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Family Research, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran



Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the interactive role of couples' self-compassion in cognitive emotion regulation of themselves and their spouses using Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Method: This study is of descriptive method and the design is correlational using structural equation modeling. The statistical population of the study included all couples living in Tehran in 2020, of whom a sample of 167 couples (334 participants) were selected via available sampling method. Short form of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire Garnefski, Kraaij, 2006 and Self-Compassion Scale Neff, 2003 were used to collect the data. the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results: The results indicated that the path coefficient of the actor effect of self-compassion had a positive and significant relationship with adaptive emotion regulation strategies (p <0.01, β=0/83 for females, β=0/60 for males) and a negative and significant relationship with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in females (p <0.01, β=-0/62) and males (p <0.05, β=-0/60). In terms of partner effect, there was a positive and significant relationship between males' self-compassion and adaptive emotion regulation strategies of their spouses (females) (p <0.05, β=0/19). It should be noted that, both conceptual models of the present research had goodness of fit. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be said that self-compassion plays an important role in predicting cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Males' self-compassion also plays a role not only in regulating their own emotions but also in their spouses' adaptive emotion regulation strategies.


بشارت، محمدعلی.، و بزازیان، سعیده. (1393). بررسی ویژگی­های روانسنجی پرسشنامه تنظیم شناختی هیجان در نمونه­ای از جامعه ایرانی. فصلنامه پیشرفت در پرستاری و مامایی، 24(84)، 61-70.  [پیوند]
تیرچ، دنیس.، ساندروف، بنجامین.، سیلبراستین، لورا. (1396). درمان متمرکز بر شفقت برای درمانگران اکت: روش­های تقویت انعطاف­پذیری روان­شناختی، ترجمه سعیده دانشمندی،راضیه ایزدی، محمدرضا عابدی. اصفهان، انتشارات کاوشیار. (2014). [پیوند]
حسنی، جعفر. (1389). خصوصیات روان‌سنجی پرسشنامۀ نظم‌جویی شناختی هیجان. روان­شناسی بالینی، 2(3)، 73-84. [پیوند]
خسروی، صدراله.، صادقی، مجید.، و یابنده، محمدرضا. (1392). کفایت روانسنجی مقیاس شفقت خود (SCS).  فصلنامه علمی­­­_پژوهشی روش­ها و مدل­های روانشناختی، 4(13)، 47-59.  [پیوند]
محمدعلی، سمیرا.، معنوی­پور، داود.، و صداقتی فرد، مجتبی. (1399). بررسی ویژگی­های روانسنجی (روایی و پایایی) مقیاس شفقت­خود:  یافتن شواهد تجربی برای استفاده از نمره­کل و تعریف مفهومی شفقت­خود. فصلنامه روانشناسی کاربردی، 2(52)، 29-50.  [پیوند]
مومنی، فرشته.، شهیدی، شهریار.، موتابی، فرشته.، و حیدری، محمود. (1392). ویژگی­های روانسنجی نسخه فارسی مقیاس خود­شفقت­ورزی. روانشناسی­معاصر، 8(2)، 27-40. [پیوند]
نف.کریستین. (1399). شفقت­خود، شیوه­ای اثبات شده برای مهربان بودن با خود. ترجمه الهام موسویان. تهران، انتشارات ارجمند. (2015). [پیوند]
Bloch, L., Haase, C. M., & Levenson, R. W. (2014). Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: More than a wives’ tale. Emotion14(1), 130. [Link]
Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and cognitive neuroscience reviews3(2), 71-100. [Link]
Diedrich, A., Hofmann, S. G., Cuijpers, P., & Berking, M. (2016). Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder. Behaviour research and therapy82, 1-10. [Link]
Finlay‐Jones, A. L. (2017). The relevance of self‐compassion as an intervention target in mood and anxiety disorders: A narrative review based on an emotion regulation framework. Clinical Psychologist21(2), 90-103.[Link]
Finlay-Jones, A. L., Rees, C. S., & Kane, R. T. (2015). Self-compassion, emotion regulation and stress among Australian psychologists: Testing an emotion regulation model of self-compassion using structural equation modeling. PloS one10(7), e0133481. [Link]
Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2006). Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire–development of a short 18-item version (CERQ-short). Personality and individual differences41(6), 1045-1053. [Link]
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual differences30(8), 1311-1327. [Link]
Gilbert, P. (2009). Introducing compassion-focused therapy. Advances in psychiatric treatment15(3), 199-208. [Link]
Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of psychopathology and behavioral assessment26(1), 41-54. [Link]
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of general psychology2(3), 271-299. [Link]   
Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology39(3), 281-291. [Link]
Gross, J. J., Richards, J. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Emotion Regulation in Everyday Life. In D. K. Snyder, J. Simpson, & J. N. Hughes (Eds.), Emotion regulation in couples and families: Pathways to dysfunction and health (pp. 13–35). American Psychological Association [Link]
Jacobson, E. H. K., Wilson, K. G., Kurz, A. S., & Kellum, K. K. (2018). Examining self-compassion in romantic relationships. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science8, 69-73.  [Link] 
Kenny, D. A., & Ledermann, T. (2010). Detecting, measuring, and testing dyadic patterns in the actor–partner interdependence model. Journal of family psychology24(3), 359. [Link]
Kenny, D.A., Kashy, D.A. & Cook, W.L. (2006). Dyadic data analysis. New York: The Guilford Press. [Link]
Krieger, T., Hermann, H., Zimmermann, J., & grosse Holtforth, M. (2015). Associations of self-compassion and global self-esteem with positive and negative affect and stress reactivity in daily life: Findings from a smart phone study. Personality and individual differences87, 288-292. [Link]
Levenson, R. W., Haase, C. M., Bloch, L., Holley, S. R., & Seider, B. H. (2014). Emotion regulation in couples. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 267–283). The Guilford Press. [Link]
Neff, K. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and identity2(2), 85-101. [Link]
Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and identity2(3), 223-250. [Link] 
Neff, K. D., & Beretvas, S. N. (2013). The role of self-compassion in romantic relationships. Self and Identity12(1), 78-98. [Link]
Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self‐compassion program. Journal of clinical psychology69(1), 28-44.  [Link]
Neff, K. D., & Pommier, E. (2013). The relationship between self-compassion and other-focused concern      among college undergraduates, community adults, and practicing meditators. Self and identity12(2), 160-176. [Link]
Neff, K. D., Bluth, K., Tóth-Király, I., Davidson, O., Knox, M. C., Williamson, Z., & Costigan, A. (2021). Development and validation of the Self-Compassion Scale for Youth. Journal of personality assessment103(1), 92-105. [Link]
Pepping, C. A., Davis, P. J., O'Donovan, A., & Pal, J. (2015). Individual differences in self-compassion: The role of attachment and experiences of parenting in childhood. Self and Identity14(1), 104-117. [Link]
Rusu, P. P., Bodenmann, G., & Kayser, K. (2019). Cognitive emotion regulation and positive dyadic outcomes in married couples. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships36(1), 359-376. [Link]
vanOyen Witvliet, C., Knoll, R. W., Hinman, N. G., & DeYoung, P. A. (2010). Compassion-focused reappraisal, benefit-focused reappraisal, and rumination after an interpersonal offense: Emotion-regulation implications for subjective emotion, linguistic responses, and physiology. The Journal of Positive Psychology5(3), 226-242. [Link]
Vasconcelos, P., Oliveira, C., & Nobre, P. (2020). Self-Compassion, emotion regulation, and female sexual pain: a comparative exploratory analysis. The journal of sexual medicine17(2), 289-299. [Link]
Woodruff, C. C., & Stevens, L. (2018). Where caring for self and others lives in the brain, and how it can be enhanced and diminished: observations on the neuroscience of empathy, compassion, and self-compassion. In The neuroscience of empathy, compassion, and self-compassion (pp. 285-320). Academic Press. [Link]
Scoglio, A. A., Rudat, D. A., Garvert, D., Jarmolowski, M., Jackson, C., & Herman, J. L. (2018). Self-compassion and responses to trauma: The role of emotion regulation. Journal of interpersonal violence33(13), 2016-2036. [Link]
Inwood, E., & Ferrari, M. (2018). Mechanisms of change in the relationship between self‐compassion, emotion regulation, and mental health: A systematic review. Applied Psychology: Health and WellBeing10(2), 215-235. [Link]
Zaki, J., & Williams, W. C. (2013). Interpersonal emotion regulation. Emotion13(5), 803. [Link]