Presenting a Model of Challenges of Raising Preschool Children with Hearing Loss Based on Grounded Theory: A Qualitative Study

Document Type : Scientific-research

Authors

1 Ph.D. student of Psychology and Education of People with Special Needs, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology and Education of People with Special Needs, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology and Education of People with Special Needs, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

4 Professor Emeritus, Department of Curriculum, Instruction & Special Education, University of Virginia,,U.S.A

10.52547/apsy.2022.225743.1257

Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to present a model of challenges in raising preschool children with hearing loss from the perspective of mothers and professionals based on the grounded theory. Method: The sample of this study was 15 mothers of children with hearing loss aged 4 to 6 years from the association of parents of children with hearing loss in Tehran and 5 professionals in the field of deaf and hard of hearing children who were selected in 2021 using purposive sampling method. The challenges of raising children with hearing loss were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews to achieve theoretical saturation and analyzed by theoretical coding (open, axial and selective coding). Results: Based on the results of the research, open codes around 290 concepts, central codes including 51 concepts and selective codes in fourteen concepts including systemic and religious challenges, couple challenges, relationship challenges, various topics, unfavorable parent-child, thoughts and feelings. Experiences of blame, anxiety about the future, isolationism, emotional and behavioral problems, emotional response to the child, problems in communication skills and independence, child neglect, transformation and constructiveness, growing parenting skills were identified and discovered. Conclusion: Parents face special challenges in raising their children with hearing loss, so it is important to pay special attention to the challenges ahead in raising a child with hearing loss.

Keywords


اشتراوس، انسلیم؛ و کوربین، جولیت. (1997). مبانی پژوهش کیفی؛ فنون و مراحل تولید نظریه زمینه‌ای، ترجمه ا. افشار (1391). تهران: نشر نی. [پیوند]
آقازیارتی، علی، عاشوری، محمد، نوروزی، قاسم. (1400). تحلیل و کشف چالش‌های پرورش فرزند کم‌شنوا از دیدگاه والدین با شنوایی عادی و نوجوانان کم‌شنوا: یک مطالعه‌‌ مقدماتی. خانواده پژوهی، 17(2), 283-301. [پیوند]
پاغنده، مرضیه؛ حسن زاده، سعید؛ و قاسم‌زاده، سوگند. (1398). اثربخشی برنامه تعامل مادر با کودک بر تنیدگی فرزندپروری و رابطه والدین با کودک دارای آسیب شنوایی. پژوهش در سلامت روان‌شناختی، 1(13)،99-124. [پیوند]
حجازی، الهه و عباسی، فهیمه (1400). اثر ادراک از روابط والدینی، رابطۀ معلم- دانش‌آموز و بهترین اهداف شخصی بر سرزندگی تحصیلی. فصلنامه روان‌شناسی کاربردی، 15(2)، 205-179. [پیوند]
شورمیج، زینب؛ صدقی، شهرام و طلاچی، هما. (1393). شناسایی عوامل زمینه­ای تأثیرگذار بر رفتار اطلاع­یابی کاربران در تعامل با گزینه جستجوی بصری در پایگاه ابسکو: یک مطالعه گراندد تئوری. تعامل انسان و اطلاعات، 1(3)، 234-225. [پیوند]
عاشوری، محمد (1400). روانشناسی، آموزش و توانبخشی افراد با آسیب شنوایی. چاپ اول. اصفهان: انتشارات دانشگاه اصفهان. [پیوند]
عاشوری، محمد؛ و غفوریان، محسن. (1399). تأثیر برنامه آموزش فرزندپروری مثبت بر نیمرخ ارتباط مادران و کودکان کم‌شنوا. فصلنامه کودکان استثنایی، ۲۰ (۳)، ۸۸-۷۹. [پیوند]
نعمتی، شهروز. (1398). تجربه زیسته مادران دارای کودکان با آسیب‌های شنوایی از مشکلات فراروی فرزندانشان: مطالعه پدیدارشناسی. فصلنامه سلامت روان کودک، 6(۴)، ۳۰۵-۳۱۵. [پیوند]
Badzis, M., & Idris, R. G. (2019). Parenting children with hearing impairment: The Milieu of parents’ practices and experiences. Intellectual Discourse, 27(SI# 2), 899–921. [Link]
Cagulada, E., & Koller, D. (2019). It’s a hearing world: Parents’ perspectives of the well-being of children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Deafness & Education International, 18(4), 27-41. [Link]
Ching, T. Y. Dillon, H. Leigh, G. & Cupples, L. (2018). Learning from the Longitudinal Outcomes of children with hearing impairment (LOCHI) study: Summary of 5-year findings and implications. International Journal of Audiology, 57(2), 105–111. [Link]
Davenport, C., Houston, D., Bowdrie, K., & Frush Holt, R. (2021). The role of early intervention in parental self-efficacy for parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention, 6(1), 38-47. [Link]
Davids, R, Roman, N. & Schenck, C. (2021). The challenges experienced by parents when parenting a child with hearing loss within a South African context. Journal of Family Social Work, 24(1), 60-78. [Link]
Dirks, E. (2018). Psychosocial functioning in toddlers with moderate hearing loss the importance of caregivers. Doctoral dissertation, Leiden University. [Link]
Giese, K. A. (2020). Factors that Influence Parent Communication Decisions for Their Deaf or Hard of Hearing Child in Illinois (Doctoral dissertation, Illinois State University). [Link]
Gocmenler, H. Ilgın, C. Ciprut, A. Hatzopoulos, S. (2021). Wellbeing of Parents with Hard of Hearing Children: A Qualitative Study. Am J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 4(1), 11-20. [Link]
Hallahan, D. P, Kauffman, J. M. & Pullen, P. C. (2018). Exceptional learners: an introduction to special education (14th Ed). Pearson Education, Inc. [Link]
Humphries, T., Kushalnagar, P., Mathur, G., Napoli, D. J., Rathmann, C., & Smith, S. (2019). Support for parents of deaf children: Common questions and informed, evidencebased answers. International Journal of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 118, 134-142. [Link]
John, J., Whicker, Karen Muñoz & Lauri, H. Nelson (2019). Parent challenges, perspectives and experiences caring for children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing with other disabilities: a comprehensive review. International Journal of Audiology, 58(1), 5-11. [Link]
Maxwell Peprah Opoku, William Nketsia, Esther Birago Benefo & Wisdom Kwadwo Mprah (2020): Understanding the parental experiences of raising deaf children in Ghana, Journal of Family Studies, 8(1), 1-20. [Link]
Mweri, G. J. (2016). The acquisition of Kenyan sign language (KSL) and its significance as a mother tongue and medium of instruction in schools for the deaf in Kenya. University of Nairobi. Journal of Language and Linguistics, 5, 85–100. [Link]
Rachel, F. N., & Megan, K. (2015). The nature of parent support provided by parent mentors for families with deaf/hard-of-hearing children: Voices from the start. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 20(1), 67–74. [Link]
Reynolds G, Werfel KL. Home Literacy Environment and Emergent Skills in Preschool Children with Hearing Loss. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 25(1), 68-79. [Link]
Roy, R. A. (2018). Auditory working memory: A comparison study in adults with normal hearing and mild to moderate hearing loss. Global Journal of Otolaryngology, 13(3), 1-14. [Link]
Ryan, C. & Quinlan, E. (2018). Whoever shouts the loudest: Listening to parents of children with disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 31, 203–214. [Link]
Schmulian D, Lind C. (2020). Parental experiences of the diagnosis of permanent childhood hearing loss: a phenomenological study. Int J Audiol, 59(1), 54–60. [Link]
Shukla, A., Harper, M., Pedersen, E., Goman, A., Suen, J. J., & Price, C. (2020). Hearing loss, loneliness, and social isolation: a systematic review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 162(5), 22-33. [Link]
Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (2015). Basics of qualitative research; techniques and stages of production of grounded theory (E. Afshar Trans). Tehran: Ney Publication. [Link]
Swierniak, W. Gos, E. Skarzynski, P. H. Czajka, N. & Skarzynski, H. (2021). The accuracy of parental suspicion of hearing loss in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 141, 110552. [Link]
Tomblin, J. B., Oleson, J., Ambrose, S. E., Walker, E. A., & Moeller, M. P. (2020). Early literacy predictors and second-grade outcomes in children who are hard of hearing. Child Development, 91(1), e179–97. [Link]
Turan, Z. 2016. “Cochlear Implanted Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: The Mother’s Perspective. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 8(7): 66–74. [Link]
Wright, B. Hargate, R. Garside, M. Carr, G. Wakefield, T. Swanwick, R. & Simpson, P. (2021). A systematic scoping review of early interventions for parents of deaf infants. BMC pediatrics, 21(1), 1-13. [Link]
Zaidman-Zait, A. & Most, T. (2020). Pragmatics and peer relationships among deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing adolescents. Pediatrics, 146(Supplement 3). [Link]
Zaidman-Zait, A. Curle, D. Jamieson, J. R. Chia, R. & Kozak, F. K. (2014). Cochlear implantation among deaf children with additional disabilities: Parental perceptions of benefits, challenges, and service provision. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 20(1), 41–50. [Link]
Zaidman-Zait, A. Most, T. Tarrasch, R. Haddadeid, E. & Brand, D. (2016). The impact of childhood hearing loss on the family: Mothers’ and fathers’ stress and coping resources. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 21(1), 23-33. [Link]