Effect of viewing female Instagram influencers’ selfies on women’s attitudes and tendency toward cosmetic surgery as mediated by facial dissatisfaction

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

10.52547/apsy.2022.227847.1351

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of viewing selfies of beauty-related female Instagram influencers on women’s attitudes and tendency toward cosmetic surgery, as mediated by facial dissatisfaction and moderated by dispositional upward physical appearance comparison. Method: It was an experimental study with type of viewed Instagram images (Female Instagram beauty influencers, Actresses active on Instagram, and Non-human) as the between-subjects factor. Participants were a convenient sample of 201 women aged 16–40 years who, after viewing images, responded to scales assessing facial dissatisfaction (Tiggemann et al., 2018), attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (Henderson-King & Henderson-King, 2005), tendency toward cosmetic surgery, and dispositional upward physical appearance comparison (O’brien et al., 2009). Analysis of covariance and regression analysis were used to test hypothesized relationships. Results: Viewing beauty influencers’ images led to a higher tendency to perform cosmetic body surgery compared to viewing actresses’ images, p < .05. Facial dissatisfaction did not mediate the effect of type of viewed images on attitude and tendency toward cosmetic surgery. The direct effect of type of viewed images on interpersonal dimension of attitude and tendency to perform face and body cosmetic surgery was significant, ps < .05. Dispositional upward physical appearance comparison did not moderate the effect of type of viewed images on facial dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Viewing Instagram selfies was less than expected effective on either facial dissatisfaction or attitude and tendency toward cosmetic surgery.

Keywords


پاینده, رقیه، و نعمت طاوسی، محترم. (1399). نقش واسطه‌ای درونی سازی آرمان‌های اجتماعی در رابطه بین بازخوردهای اجتماعی- فرهنگی و نارضایتی از ظاهر بدنی. پژوهش­های روانشناسی اجتماعی، 10(40)، 74-59. ]پیوند[
خبازثابت، سرور، کیخسروانی، مولود، پولادی ریشهریف علی، و بحرانی، محمد رضا. (1401). رابطه بین گرایش به جراحی زیبایی با نگرش به مد و تصویر بدنی منفی زنان متقاضی جراحی زیبایی با تکیه بر نوع جراحی: نقش میانجی­گری تنظیم شناختی هیجان. پژوهش­های روانشناسی اجتماعی، 12(46)، 60-37. ]پیوند[
خزیر، ز. دهداری، ط. محمودی، م. (۱۳۹۲). بررسی نگرش دانشجویان دختر علوم پزشکی نسبت به انجام جراحی زیبایی و رابطه آن با تصور از بدن، مجله علوم پزشکی رازی، ۲۰(۱۱۷)، 9-1. ]پیوند[
صادقی نگار، مرادی علی‌رضا، حسنی جعفر، و محمدخانی شهرام (1397). ابعاد شناختی، هیجانی و رفتاری تصویر بدنی در زنان علاقمند به جراحی زیبایی. پوست و زیبایی. ۹ (۲)، 100-112.]پیوند[
قاسمی، افسانه. (1396). مطالعة کیفی نگرش و ادراکات زنان از بدن با تأکید بر جراحی‌های زیبایی. نشریه جامعه­شناسی کاربردی، 28(4)، 194-173. ]پیوند[
Abbas, O. L., & Karadavut, U. (2017). Analysis of the factors affecting men’s attitudes toward cosmetic surgery: Body image, media exposure, social network use, masculine gender role stress, and religious attitudes. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery41(6), 1454-1462.‏ [link]
ASPS (2020). Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. ASPS American society of plastic surgeons. 2020 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report. [link]
Brehm, J. W. (1966). A Theory of Psychological Reactance. New York, NY: Academic Press. [link]
Buunk, A. P., & Gibbons, F. X. (2007). Social comparison: The end of a theory and the emergence of a field. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes102(1), 3-21.‏ [link]
Chae, J. (2018). Explaining females’ envy toward social media influencers. Media Psychology21(2), 246-262. [link]
Deane, G. (2017). Is it Instagram-Worthy?. An Exploration of the Impact of Instagram on Body Image Perception Among Irish Women aged, 18-24.‏[link]
DeVries, D. A., Möller, A. M., Wieringa, M. S., Eigenraam, A. W., & Hamelink, K. (2018). Social comparison as the thief of joy: emotional consequences of viewing strangers’ Instagram posts. Media psychology21(2), 222-245.‏ [link]
Fardouly, J., Pinkus, R. T., & Vartanian, L. R. (2017). The impact of appearance comparisons made through social media, traditional media, and in-person in women’s everyday lives. Body image20, 31-39.‏ [link]
Fardouly, J., & Rapee, R. M. (2019). The impact of no-makeup selfies on young women’s body image. Body Image, 28, 128–134. [link]
Fardouly, J., & Vartanian, L. R. (2015). Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns. Body image12, 82-88.‏ [link]
Fardouly, J., Willburger, B. K., & Vartanian, L. R. (2018). Instagram use and young women’s body image concerns and self-objectification: Testing mediational pathways. New Media & Society20(4), 1380-1395.‏ [link]
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations7(2), 117-140. [link]
Gawronski, B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: an integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin132(5), 692link‏
Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann Jr, W. B. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in personality37(6), 504-528.‏ [link]
Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological review102(1), 4. [link]
Heinberg, L. J., & Thompson, J. K. (1995). Body image and televised images of thinness and attractiveness: A controlled laboratory investigation. Journal of social and clinical psychology14(4), 325-338.‏[link]
Henderson-King, D., & Henderson-King, E. (2005). Acceptance of cosmetic surgery: Scale development and validation. Body image2(2), 137-149.‏ [link]
Hendrickse, J., Arpan, L. M., Clayton, R. B., & Ridgway, J. L. (2017). Instagram and college women's body image: Investigating the roles of appearance-related comparisons and intrasexual competition. Computers in Human Behavior74, 92-100.‏ [link]
Holland, G., & Tiggemann, M. (2016). A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes. Body image17, 100-110.‏ [link]
Iranian surgery. (2019, May 16. ( Rhinoplasty in Iran. [Web log message]. Retrieved from https://iraniansurgery.com/en/rhinoplasty-in-iran
ISAPS Global Statistics. International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. ISAPS International Survey on Aesthetic /Cosmetic Procedures Performed in 2020. https://www.isaps.org/medical-professionals/isaps-global-statistics/
Kleemans, M., Daalmans, S., Carbaat, I., & Anschütz, D. (2018). Picture perfect: The direct effect of manipulated Instagram photos on body image in adolescent girls. Media Psychology21(1), 93-110.‏ [link]
Lee, S. Y. (2014). How do people compare themselves with others on social network sites?: The case of Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior32, 253-260.‏ [link]
Ng, C. H. (2019). Impact of Instagram Influencers on Cosmetic Surgery (Doctoral dissertation, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College)[link]
O’Brien, K. S., Caputi, P., Minto, R., Peoples, G., Hooper, C., Kell, S., & Sawley, E. (2009). Upward and downward physical appearance comparisons: Development of scales and examination of predictive qualities. Body Image6(3), 201-206.‏ [link]
Rastmanesh R, Gluck ME, Shadman Z. (2009). Comparison of body dissatisfaction and cosmetic rhinoplasty with levels of veil practicing in Islamic women Int J Eat Disord, 42 (4): 339–45. [link]
Sarwer, D. B., Cash, T. F., Magee, L., Williams, E. F., Thompson, J. K., Roehrig, M., ... & Anderson, D. A. (2005). Female college students and cosmetic surgery: An investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image. Plastic and reconstructive surgery115(3), 931-938.‏[link]
Sensis. The must-know stats from the 2018 yellow social media report [Internet]. Melbourne: Sensis; 2018 [cited 2019 Sep 10]. Available from: https://www.sensis.com.au/about/our-reports/sensis-social-media-report. [link]
Smith, A., & Anderson, M. (2018). Social media use in 2018. Pew Research Center. [link]
Sun, Q. (2021). Selfie editing and consideration of cosmetic surgery among young Chinese women: The role of self-objectification and facial dissatisfaction. Sex Roles84(11), 670-679.‏ [link]
Statista. (2022, May 23). www.statista.com, [Online]. Available. https://www.statista.com/statistics/183585/instagram-number-of-global-users/
Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. American Psychological Association.‏ [link]
Tiggemann, M., & McGill, B. (2004). The role of social comparison in the effect of magazine advertisements on women's mood and body dissatisfaction. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology23(1), 23-44.‏ [link]
Tiggemann, M., Brown, Z., Zaccardo, M., & Thomas, N. (2017). “Warning: This image has been digitally altered”: The effect of disclaimer labels added to fashion magazine shoots on women’s body dissatisfaction. Body Image21, 107-113.‏ [link]
Tiggemann, M., Hayden, S., Brown, Z., & Veldhuis, J. (2018). The effect of Instagram “likes” on women’s social comparison and body dissatisfaction. Body image26, 90-97.‏ [link]
Tiggemann, M., & Zaccardo, M. (2015). “Exercise to be fit, not skinny”: The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image. Body image15, 61-67.‏ [link]
Tiggemann, M., & Zinoviev, K. (2019). The effect of# enhancement-free Instagram images and hashtags on women’s body image. Body image31, 131-138.‏ [link]