Psychometric properties of the new version of the inventory of perfectionism in Iranian adolescent girls

Document Type : Original Article


Aim: The aim of the study was to determine psychometric properties of the new version perfectionism inventory in adolescent girls. Method: This study was correlational and the target population consists of all girls’ college preparatory public high schools in Tabriz city in the 2013-2014 educational year. Among them, 832 students were selected by multistage cluster sampling and were completed the perfectionism inventory (PI), Hill, Huelsman, Furr, Kibler, Vicente & Kennedy (2004). To determine the validity of perfectionism inventory were used structural equational modeling (SEM), the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods and internal consistency coefficients were used to compute the PI's factorial validity and reliability, respectively. Results: The results of principal component analysis (PC) with varimax rotation replicated showed that this inventory has formed 8 factor structure of concern over mistakes, perceived parental pressure, rumination, need for approval, high standards for others, striving for excellence, organization and purposefulness. Second-order exploratory and confirmatory analyses also provide experimental support for the 8 scale PI model as well as support for 2 composite PI factors labeled conscientious perfectionism and self-evaluative perfectionism. Conclusion: The PI to be a useful and relatively efficient measure of perfectionism for Iranian adolescents and it was used for clinical and studied purposes.


  1. بشارت، محمد علی. (1386). ساخت و اعتباریابی مقیاس کمال‌گرایی چندبْعدی تهران. پژوهش‌های روان‌شناختی، 10(1 و 2پیاپی 19): 68-49.
  2. بی‌طرف، شبنم.، شعیری، محمد رضا.، و حکیم جوادی، منصور. (1389). هراس اجتماعی، سبک‌های والدگری و کمال‌گرایی. فصلنامة روان‌شناسی تحولی (روان‌شناسان ایرانی)، پاییز، 7(25): 83-75.
  3. جمشیدی، بهنام.، حسین‌چاری، مسعود.، حقیقت، شهربانو.، و رزمی، محمدرضا. (1388). اعتباریابی مقیاس جدید کمال‌گرایی. مجله علوم رفتاری، 3(1): 43-35.
  4. شیخی، محسن.، فتح‌آبادی، جلیل.، و حیدری، محمود. (1392). ارتباط اضطراب، خودکارآمدی و کمال‌گرایی با اهمال‌کاری در تدوین پایان‌نامه. فصلنامة روان‌شناسی تحولی (روان‌شناسان ایرانی)، 9(35): 295-283.
  5. قنبری، سعید.، جواهری، عابدین.، سیدموسوی، پریسا سادات.، و ملحی، الناز. (1389). رابطه بین ابعاد کمال‌گرایی دانشجویان و روابط مثبت آن‌ها با دیگران. فصلنامه روان‌شناسی کاربردی، 4(16): 84-72.
  6. Baş, A. U., & Siyez, D. M. (2012). Adaptation of the child and adolescent perfectionism scale to Turkish: The validity and reliability study. Elementary Education Online, 9(3): 898-909.
  7. Broman-Fulks, J. J., Hill, R. W., & Green, B. A. (2008). Is perfectionism categorical or dimensional? A taxometric analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90(5): 481–490.
  8. Burns, D. D. (1980). The perfectionist’s script for self-defeat. Psychology Today, 13:70–76.
  9. Byrne, B. M. (2006). Structural equation modeling with EQS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  10. Cruce, S. E., Pashak, T. J., Handal, P. J., Munz, D. C., & Gfeller, J. D. (2012). Conscientious Perfectionism, Self-Evaluative Perfectionism, and the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(3): 268-273.
  11. Enns, M. W., & Cox, B. J. (1999). Perfectionism and depression symptom severity in major depressive disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37: 783–794.
  12. Enns, M.W., & Cox, B. J. (2002). The nature and assessment of perfectionism: Acritical analysis. In G. L. Flett&P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research and practice (pp. 33–62). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  13. Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2002). Perfectionism and maladjustment: An overview of theoretical, definitional, and treatment issues. In P. L. Hewitt & G. L. Flett (Eds.), Perfectionism (pp. 5-31). Washington, DC: APA.
  14. Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2006). Positive versus negative perfectionism in psychopathology: A comment on Slade and Owens’s dual process model. Behavior Modification, 30: 472-495.
  15. Flett, G. L., Panico, T., & Hewitt, P. L. (2011). Perfectionism, type a behavior, and self-efficacy in depression and health symptoms among adolescents. Current Psychology, 30: 105–116.
  16. Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14: 449–468.
  17. Frost, R. O., & Steketee, G. (1997). Perfectionism in obsessive compulsive disorder patients. Behavior Research and Therapy, 35: 291–296.
  18. Frost, R. O., Turcotte, T. A., Heimberg, R. G., Mattia, J. I., Holt, C. S., & Hope, D. A. (1995). Reactions to mistakes among subjects high and low in perfectionistic concern over mistakes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19: 195–205.
  19. Gelabert, E., Garcia-Esteve2, L., Martin-Santos, R., Gutierrez, F., Torres, A., & Subirà, S. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in women. Psicothema, 23(1): 133-139.
  20. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfection in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60:456–470.
  21. Hill, R. W., Huelsman, T. J., & Araujo, G. (2010). Perfectionistic concerns suppress associations between perfectionistic strivings and positive life outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 48: 584–589.
  22. Hill, R. W., Huelsman, T. J., Furr, R. M., Kibler, J., Vicente, B., & Kennedy, C. (2004). A new measure of perfectionism: The Perfectionism Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82: 80–91.
  23. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6: 1–55.
  24. Lee, D., & Park, H. (2011). Cross-Cultural Validity of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in Korea. The Counseling Psychologist, 39: 320-345.
  25. Kawamura, K. Y., Hunt, S. L., Frost, R. O., & Dibartolo, P. (2001). Perfectionism, anxiety, and depression: Are the relationships independent? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25: 291–301.
  26. Khodarahimi, S. (2010). Perfectionism and five-big model of personality in an Iranian sample. International Journal of Psychology and Counseling, 2(4): 72-79.
  27. Navarez, J. C., & Cayubit, R. F. O. (2011). Exploring the factors of perfectionism within the big five personality model among Filipino college students. Educational Measurement and Evaluation Review, 2: 77-91.
  28. Nilsson, J. E., Paul, B. D., Lupini, L. N., & Tatem, B. (1999). Cultural differences in perfectionism: A comparison of African American and White college students. Journal of College Student Development, 40: 141–150.
  29. Purdon, C., Antony, M., & Swinson, R. (1999). Psychometric properties of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in a clinical anxiety disorders sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55: 1271–1286.
  30. Rice, K. G., Ashby, J. S., & Slaney, R. B. (2007). Perfectionism and the five-factor model of personality. Assessment, 14 (4): 385-398.
  31. Rice, K. G., Leever, B. A., Christopher, J., & Porter, J. D. (2006). Perfectionism, stress, and social (dis)connection: A short-term study of hopelessness, depression, and academic adjustment among honors students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53: 524–534.
  32. Rice, K.G., & Preusser, K.J. (2002). The Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34: 210-222.
  33. Rice, K.G., & Mirzadeh, S. A. (2000). Perfectionism, attachment, and adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47: 238–250.
  34. Rice, K. G., & Stuart, J. (2010). Differentiating adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on the MMPI–2 and MIPS revised. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92(2): 158–167.
  35. Slaney, R. B., Rice, K. G., Mobley, M., Trippi, J., & Ashby, J. S. (2001). The revised Almost Perfect Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34: 130–146.
  36. Stober, J. (1998). The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale revisited: More perfect with four (instead of six) dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 24: 481–491.
  37. Stoeber, J., & Rambow, A. (2007). Perfectionism in adolescent school students: Relations with motivation, achievement, and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(7): 1379-1389.
  38. Stoeber, J., Hoyle, Z., & Last, F. (2013). The consequences of perfectionism scale: Factorial structure and relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 46(3): 178–191.
  39. Stumpf, H., & Parker, W. (2000). A hierarchical structural analysis of perfectionism and its relation to other personality characteristics. Personality and Individual Differences, 28: 837–852.
  40. Yeh, Y., & Ting, Y, (2008). Confirmatory Analyses of Perfectionism on high School Students in Taipei. From: http://files.eric. ED501855. Pdf.