Developing and Validation of Iranian Positive youth development Model

Document Type : Original Article



The aim of study was to develop and validate a positive youth development model for Iranian adolescents. Methods: The type of study is qualitative and thematic analysis. The statistical population of the study was all written sources related to positive change, including keywords and related semantic background,teachers, parents with adolescent and adolescents aged 15-17 years, of which 25 selected sources with the highest rate Impact and indexed on the Global Positive Transformation website, 23 teachers, 30 parents, 40 schoolgirls and 15 psychologists were randomly selected to achieve theoretical saturation and in the validation section of Model 8 psychologists and  320 school girls and boys.  Result: Data obtained from semi-structured sources and interviews by content analysis and then exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed the conceptual model of positive Iranian adolescent development with eight components of hope, meaning, health, positive education, happiness, positive communication, identity, Character and personality abilities and 46 sub-components. Identification and hope factors were identified as the most important and least important factors by explaining 18.93% and 2.62% of the total variance of positive change, respectively. The indices x2 = 0.7, GFI = 0.98 and RMSEA = 0.001 showed the optimal fit of the model. Conclusion: By designing educational and therapeutic interventions based on the model of positive change of Iranian adolescence based on culture, we can try to cultivate the components of positive change for adolescents and facilitate the achievement of positive change in Iranian adolescents.


Abubakar, A., Schachner, M., Aydnili-Karakulak, A., Alonso-Arbiol, I., Martinez- Fernandez, V., Nyongesa, M. K., & Shauri, H. (2017). Family connectedness and its association with psychological well-being among emerging adults across four cultural contexts. In A. Petersen, S. H. Koller, F. Motti-Stefanidi, & S. Verma (Eds.), Positive youth development in global contexts of social and economic change (pp. 137–156). Abington, UK: Taylor & Francis Group .[link].
Allen, J. P., Philliber, S., Herrling, S. & Kuperminc, G. (1997). Preventing teen pregnancy and academic failure: Experimental evaluation of a developmentally-based approach. Child Development, 68(4), 729-742 .[link].
Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Watson., M. & Solomon, D. (1996). Prevention effects of the Child Development Project: Early findings from an ongoing multisite demonstration trial.Journal of Adolescent Research, 11(1), 12-35 .[link].
Benson, P L., Scales, P.C., & Syvertsen, A.K. (2011). The contribution of the developmental assets framework to positive youth development theory and practice. In R.M. Lerner. [link].
Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Hamilton, S. F., & Semsa, A., Jr. (2006). Positive youth development: Theory, research, and applications. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.). Theoretica models of human development. Volume 1 of handbook of child psychology (6th ed.).Editors-in chief: W. Damon & R. M. Lerner. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. [link].
Brendtro, L.K., Brokenleg, M., & Van Bockern, S. (1990). Reclaiming youth at risk: Our hope for the future. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. [link].
Bullock, M. (2012). International Psychology. In D. Freedheim & I. Weiner (Eds.), Hand- book of psychology: Vol. 1. History of psychology (2nd ed., pp. 562–596). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. [link].
Cardenas, J. A., Montecel, M. R., Supik, J. D. & Harris, R. J. (1992). The Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program. Dropout prevention strategies for at-risk students. Texas Researcher, 3, 111-130. [link].
Catalano, R.F., Berglund, M.L., Ryan, J.A.M., Lonczak, H.S., & Hawkins, J.D. (2004). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of youth development programs. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. [Special issue] Positive Development: Realizing the Potential of Youth, 591, 98-124. [link].
Chen. Bin-Bin, Wiium. Nora & Dimitrova. Radosveta. (2018). Factor structure of positive youth development: Contributions of exploratory structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences 124, 12–15.[link].
Dimitrova, R., Musso, P., Abubakar, A., Solcova, I. P., Stefenel, D., Uka, F.,  Jordanov, V. (2017). Identity resources for positive adaptation of Roma Ethnic Minority Youth in Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic,Italy, Kosovo, and Romania. In A. Petersen, S. H. Koller, F. Motti-Stefanidi, & S. Verma (Eds.), Positive youth development in global contexts of social and economic change (pp. 183–198). Abington, UK: Taylor & Francis Group. [link].
Eccles, J.S., & Roeser, R.W. (2009). Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment. Handbook of adolescent psychology: Individual bases of adolescent development (pp. 404–434). [link].
Flay, B.R., & Allred, C.G. (2003). Long term effects of the positive action program. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27(1), S6-S21. [link]. 
Geldhof, G. J., Bowers, E. P., Boyd, M. J., Mueller, M. K., Napolitano, C. M., Schmid, K. L., Lerner, R. M. (2014). Creation of short and very short measures of the five Cs of positive youth development. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24, 163–176. [link].
Gestsdo´ttir, S., & Lerner, R. (2007). Intentional self-regulation and positive youth development in early adolescence: Findings from the 4-H study of positive youth development. Developmental Psychology. 43 (2), 508–521. [link].
Gestsdottir, S., & Lerner, R. M. (2008). Positive development in adolescence: The development and role of intentional self-regulation. Human Development, 51(3), 202-224. [link].
Hahn, A., Leavitt, T. & Aaron, P. (1994). Evaluation of the Quantum Opportunities Program (QOP). Did the program work? A report on the postsecondary outcomes and cost-effectiveness of the QOP Program (1989-1993). Waltham, MA: Brandeis Uni versity Heller Graduate School Center for Human Resources. [link].
Hamilton, S.F., & Hamilton, M.A. (2009). The transition to adulthood: Challenges of poverty and structural lag. In R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: 2 (61)Contextual influences on adolescent development, (3rd ed., pp. 492 526). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [link].
Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53,87−98.. [link].
Heck, K.E., & Subramaniam, A. (2009). Youth development frameworks. [Monograph]. Davis, CA: 4-H Center for youth development, University of California. [link].
Holt, N. L., Neely, K. C., Slater, Linda G., M., Camiré, J. Côté, Fraser-Th., Jessica,McDonald, D., Strachan L. & Tamminen, K. A. (2016). A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study.International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 10 (1), 1–49. [link].
Johnson, K., Strader, T., Berbaum, M., Bryant, D., Bucholtz, G., Collins, D. & Noe, T. (1996). Reducing alcohol and other drug use by strengthening community, family, and youth resiliency: An evaluation of the Creating Lasting Connections Program. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11(1). 36-67. [link].
Kirby, D., Barth, R. P., Leland, N. & Fetro, J. V. (1991). Reducing the risk: Impact of a new curriculum on sexual risk-taking. Family Planning Perspectives, 23(6), 253- 263. [link].
Larson, R.W., Walker, K.C., & Pearce, N. (2005). A comparison of youth-driven and adult driven youth programs: Balancing inputs from youth and adults. Journal ofCommunity Psychology, 33(1), 57-74. [link].
Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V. & Colleagues. (2013). The positive development of youth: comprehensive findings from the 4-h Study of positive youth development. Tufts University: Institute for Applied Research in Youth 2Development.  [link].
LoSciuto, L., Freeman, M. A., Harrington, E., Altman, B. & Lanphear, A. (1997). An outcome evaluation of the Woodrock youth development project. Journal of Early Adolescence, 17(1), 51-66. [link].
Mariano, J.M., & Damon, W. (2008). The role of spirituality and religious faith in supporting purpose in adolescence. In R.M. Lerner, R.W. Roeser, & E. Phelps (Eds.), Positive youth development and spirituality: From theory to research (pp. 210-230).West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press. [link].
Masten, Ann S. (2014). Resilience and positive youth development frameworks indevelopmental science. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43 (6), 1018–1024. [link].
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2002). In J. Eccles & J. Gootman (Eds.), Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC National Academy Press. [link].
Ng, F. F.-Y., Pomerantz, E. M., & Lam, S. (2007). European American and Chinese parents’ responses to children’s success and failure: Implications for children’s responses. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1239–1255. [link].
Pedro-Carroll, J. L. & Cowen, E. L. (1985). The children of divorce intervention program: An investigation of the efficacy of a school-based prevention program.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(5), 603-611. [link].
Perry, C. L., Williams, C. L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Toomey, T.L., Komro, K.A., Anstine, P.A., McGovern, P.G., Finnegan, J.R., Forster, J.L., Wagenaar, A.C. & Wolfson, M. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a community wide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health,86(7), 956-965. [link].
Petersen, A., Koller, S., Motti-Stefanidi, F., & Verma, S. (2017). Positive youth development in global contexts of social and economic change. Abington, UK: Taylor & Francis Group. [link].
Rosenthal, D. A., Gurney, R. M., & Moore, S. M. (1981). From trust to intimacy: A newinventory for examining Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 10, 525–537. [link].
Shek, Daniel T. L & Sun, Rachel C. F. (2012). Positive youth development, life satisfaction and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong: A replication. Social Indicators Research Journal, 105, 3, 541–559. [link].
Taylor, C. S., Smith, P. R., Taylor, V. A., von Eye, A., Lerner, R. M., Balsano, A. B.  Almerigi, J. B. (2005). Individual and ecological assets and thriving among African American adolescent male gang and community-based organization members: A report from wave 3 of the “overcoming the odds” study. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 72–93. [link].
Theokas, Ch., & Lerner, R. (2006). Observed ecological assets in families,schools, and neighborhoods: Conceptualization, measurement, and relations with positive and negative developmental outcomes. Applied Developmental Science, 10 (2), 61–74. [link].
Tierney, J. P., Grossman, J. B., & Resch, N. L. (1995). Making a difference: An impact study of big brothers/big sisters. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.[link].