The study of capacity to be "feminine" from lived-experience of Iranian women with emphasis on social and cultural dimensions

Document Type : Scientific-research


1 PhD candidate of psychology.Department of psychology and education. Shahid Beheshti University. Tehran.Iran

2 Professor, Department of Psychology and education.Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of letters and human science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

5 Associate Professor, Family Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.



Aim: The feminine and masculine template change repeatedly by culture and time.What we know as femininity or masculinity is related to western culture, so it is needed sexuality literature get enriched by eastern culture. Accordingly, the aim of this study is recognition of feminine dimentions in Iranian cultrure based on Iranian women lived experinces. Methods: The research method is qualitative in terms of interpretive phenomenology. For investigation of the concept of femininity in this study; the population participating include all women who live in Tehran and their age are between 30 -45 who didn’t have any psychotherapy experience. The sampling method was a purposive sampling and it is used semistructured interview. All interviews were recorded and then transcribed manually and finally analyzed using the interpretive analysis method. Results: 18 semi-structured interviews with participants in the study were conducted and the analysis of interview data led to the identification and classification of 146 open code, 14 concepts and 2 main themes in related to lived experiences of Iranian women. In this study we just study the cultural part in concept of femininity in Iranian women lived experiences. Conclusion: Finally, according to the result of this investigation, we look again into sexuality instead of talking about men and women dualism. So, we can talk about multipilicity and multi-being of femenities and masculinities that everyone benefited from it according to their desire.                                                                                                                  


بووار، س. (1949). جنس دوم. ترجمه: صنعوی، ق.  (1380).تهران: توس. [پیوند]
حیدری، م. (1386). تحولات بازنمایی زنان در برنامه خانه فیروزه‌ای صداوسیما. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد: دانشکده علوم اجتماعی و اقتصادی الزهرا.  [پیوند]
خمسه، ا. (1386). بررسی عوامل فرهنگی- اجتماعی بر طرحواره‌های نقش‌های جنسیتی در دو گروه قومی از دانشجویان در ایران. مطالعات روانشناختی 129-146، 2(3).  [پیوند]
سامانی، س؛ خیر، م. (1380). بررسی فرایند تحول مراحل مختلف هویت جنسی در کودکان 2تا 7 سال. مجله روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی. 137-153، (2)31. ]پیوند[
سلطانی جیحون‌آبادی، م. (1388). بررسی روایت‌های زنانگی در میان دختران دانشجو دانشگاه گیلان. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد: دانشکده ادبیات دانشگاه گیلان. [پیوند]
فتوحی کندلجی، ا.(1393). بازنمایی زنان در آگهی‌های بازرگانی تلویزیون.مقاله‌های همایش‌های ایران . کنفرانس بین‌المللی و آنلاین اقتصاد سبز: شرکت پژوهشی طرود شمال. ]پیوند[  
کرسول، ج. (1945). پویش کیفی و طرح پژوهش. مترجمان: دانایی فرد، ح. ؛ کاظمی، ح. (1391). تهران: صفار- اشراقی.  [پیوند]
ملاابراهیمی، ع؛ تارودی ممقانی، ی؛ و هنردوست، ع. (1392). جایگاه ایران در میان کشور‌های منطقه خاورمیانه و آسیای مرکزی در افق سال 2015 براساس شاخص‌های توانمندسازی زنان. نشریه زن در فرهنگ و هنر. 345-373، (3)5.  [پیوند]
 Auspurg, K., Iacovou, M., & Nicoletti, C. (2017). Housework  share  between  partners: experimental evidence on gender-specific preferences. Social Science Research, 66, 118-139. [link]
Bian, L., Leslie, S. J., & Cimpian, A. (2017). Gender stereotypes about intellectual ability emerge early and influence children’s  interests. Science, 355(6323), 389-391. [link]
Bieri Buschor, C., Kappler, C., Keck Frei, A., & Berweger, S. (2014). I want to be a scientist/a teacher: students'  perceptions of career decision-making in gender-typed, non-traditional areas of work. Gender and Education, 26(7), 743-758. [link]
Butler J. (1989). The Body politics of Julia Kristeva. Blackwell Publishing on behalf of Hypatia, Inc. 3(3), 104-118.URL:[Link]
Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual equality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. [link]
Cejka, M. A., & Eagly, A. H. (1999). Gender-stereotypic images of occupations correspond to the sex segregati on of employment. Personality and  Social  Psychology Bulletin, 25(4), 413-423. [link]                                            
Chodorow, N. (1989). Feminism and psychoanalytic theory. Yale University Press ]link[
Colaizzi, P. (1978). Psychological research as a phenomenologist view it. In: Valle, R. S. & King, M. Existential Phenomenological Alternatives for Psychology. Open University Press: New York. [link]
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. [link]
Einarsdottir, J. (2007).  Research with children: methodological and ethical challenges. European early childhood education research journal, 15(2): 198-211. [link]
Freud, S. (1924a). The dissolution of the Oedipus complex. In Standard Edition of Sigmund Freud’s Articles. London: Hogarth Press; 19,173-182. [link]
Freud, S. (1924b).  The economic problem of masochism.  In  Standard Edition of Sigmund Freud’s Articles. London: Hogarth Press; 19,185-190. [link]
Freud, S. (1927).  Some psychical consequences of the anatomical distinctions between the sexes. In Standard Edition of Sigmund Freud’s Articles. London: Hogarth Press; 20, 75-103. [link]
Freud, S. (1933). New introductory lectures on psycho-analysis (Lecture XXXIII Femininity: 112-135). Standard Edition. London: Hogarth Press; 22, 3-184. [link]
Fulcher, M. (2011).  Individual differences in children’s occupational aspirations as a function of parental traditionality. Sex Roles, 64(1-2), 117-131[link]
Harkness, S. (2003). The household division of labour: Changes in families’ allocation of paid and  unpaid work,  1992–2002. In The Labour Market Under New Labour (pp. 150-169). Palgrave Macmillan, London. [link]
Hook, J. L. (2010). Gender inequality in the welfare state: Sex segregation in housework, 1965–2003. American journal of sociology, 115(5), 1480-1523. [link]
Horne, R. M., Johnson, M. D., Galambos, N. L., & Krahn, H. J. ( 2018). Time, money, or gender? Predictors of the division of household labour across life stages.  Sex Roles, 78(11-12), 731-743. [link]
Jung, A. K., & O’Brien, K. M. (2017). The profound influence of unpaid work on women’s lives:  an overview and future directions. Journal of Career Development, [link]
Jung, A. K., & Heppner, M. J. (2015). Work of full‐time mothers:  putting voice to the relational theory of working. The Career Development Quarterly, 63(3), 253-267. [link]
Kristeva, J.  (1893). the portable kristeva. Oliver, K. (editor). Colombia University Press.New York. [link]
Lachance-Grzela, M., & Bouchard, G. (2010). Why do women do the lion’s share of housework? a decade of research. Sex Roles, 63(11-12), 767-780. [link]
Moreno-Colom, S. (2017). The gendered division of housework time: Analysis of time use by type and daily frequency of household tasks. Time & Society, 26(1), 3-27. [link]
Perales, F., Baxter, J., & Tai, T. O. (2015). Gender,  justice and work: A distributive approach to perceptions of housework fairness.  Social Science Research, 51, 51-63. [link]
Petersen, J. & Hyde, J. (2010a). Gender differences in sexuality. J.C. Chrisler, D.R. McCreary (eds.), Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology, 471-491 [link]
Petersen, J. & Hyde, J. (2010b). A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993–2007. Psychological Bulletin. 136(1), 21–38. [link]
Ryle, R. (2012). Questioning Gender: A Sociological Exploration. by Pine Forge Press an imprint of publications, Inc. [link]
Scott, J. W. (2011). The Fantasy of Feminist History, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 200pp. [link]
Stubbe, M. (1994). What’s the score? Qualitative analysis in gender research. International Journal of Language and Applied Linguistics, 4(1), 3-18.[link]
Tai, T. O., & Treas, J. (2012). Housework task  hierarchies in  32  countries. European Sociological Review, 29(4), 780-791. [link]                                     
Simon, R. M., Wagner, A., & Killion, B. (2017). Gender and choosing a STEM major in college: Femininity, masculinity, chilly climate, and occupational values.  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(3), 299-323. [link]
Spinner, L., Cameron, L., & Calogero, R. (2017). Peer toy play as a gateway to children’s gender flexibility: The effect of (counter) stereotypic portrayals of peers in children’s magazines. Sex Roles, 1-15. [link]
Van Manen,m.1990, “researching lived experience: human science for an actionsensitive pedagogy” London, Ontario, Canada: the university of western Ontario. [link]
Zosuls, K., Miller, C., Ruble, D., Martin, C., & Fabes, R. (2011). Gender development research in Sex Roles: historical trends and future directions. Sex Roles. 64, 826–842.[link]