Determining Interactive and Individual Characteristics of Preschool Children with Anxiety Disorders Based on Developmental, Individual Differences, Relationship Based Model (DIR)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Student in Psychology, Department of Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Education and Counseling Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Education and Counseling Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the interactive and individual characteristics of preschool children with anxiety disorders based on developmental, individual differences, relationship-based model.
Method: The research method was concurrent-nested mixed. The statistical population of the study was all 4 to 6 years old children who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders based on the anxiety screening plan in 1399-1400 in Kashan city. Among them, 19 children were selected by purposeful sampling. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with children and parents, and quantitative data were collected through Ghanbari maternal caregiving quality (1390), Luyten parental reflection function (2013), Dunn sensory profile (1999), and Greenspan functional-emotional developmental questionnaire (2001). Quantitative information was analyzed using a cutoff point, and qualitative information was analyzed through content analysis.
Results: The results showed that there are three differences between quantitative and qualitative data: Quantitative information of 26% of the sample, which indicated poor sensory registration in anxious children, contradicts with qualitative results of sensory hyperresponsiveness in these children, and also in Maternal reflection Performance and the subscale of ambiguity of the Maternal Care Quality Questionnaire, most of the samples showed no disorder, which is in contrast with qualitative data.
Conclusion: The differences obtained do not indicate the superiority of the quantitative or qualitative method. In line with the DIR approach, the results are complementary and provide more details about the individual and interactive characteristics of anxious children.


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