Comparing the Effectiveness of Resilience, Mindfulness and Positivity Training Packages on Students' Psychological Capital

Document Type : Scientific-research

Authors

1 Islamic Azad University of Isfahan Khorasgan Branch

2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, College of Education and Psychology, Isfahan (khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

10.52547/apsy.2022.226971.1315

Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of Pennsylvania resilience training, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and positive psychotherapy on students’ psychological capital. Methods: A controlled pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted with a two-month follow-up. The statistical population included all third-year male students in Shahrekord public middle schools during the school year 2020-2021. Sixty students were conveniently sampled and randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or a control group (n = 15 per group). Each of the experimental groups underwent six sessions, held twice weekly, of the Pennsylvania Resilience Program (Seligman et al., 2009), positive psychotherapy (Seligman et al., 2013), or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (Segal et al., 2012). The controls did not receive any intervention during the same period. Luthans et al.’s (2007) Psychological Capital Questionnaire constituted the research instrument. The data were analyzed using a mixed model analysis of variance. Findings: due to significant difference in the means of the three groups in the pre-test, post-test and follow-up stages, the results revealed a significant effect of Pennsylvania resilience training, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and positive psychotherapy on psychological capital (P<=0.05) and the stability of these programs during the follow-up phase. Conclusion: Given the stressful nature of adolescence, the Pennsylvania Resilience Program, positive psychotherapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy can be utilized to enhance the psychological capital and mental health of adolescents, according to the findings of this study.

Highlights

ابوالمعالی، خدیجه.، و شجاعیان، مریم. (1397). اثربخشی شناخت درمانی مبتنی بر ذهن‌آگاهی بر افزایش سرمایه روان شناختی دانش آموزان مقطع متوسطه. مطالعات روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی. زمستان، 36، 21 - 32. ]پیوند[

آتش پور، سیدحمید.، عبدیان، طاهره.، و قاسمی، حمیده. (1400). آموزش اثربخشی ذهن‌آگاهی بر سرمایه روان‌شناختی، شادکامی و رضایت از زندگی در زنان خانه‌دار. مجله پیشرفتهای نوین در علوم رفتاری. ۵ (۵۳):1-15. ]پیوند[

بوالهری، جعفر.، احسان منش، مجتبی.، و کریمی کیسمی، عیسی. (1379). بررسی رابطه بین عوامل تنش زا, میزان توکل به خدا و نشانگان استرس در دانشجویان پزشکی. مجله روانپزشکی و روانشناسی بالینی ایران (اندیشه و رفتار). 6(1): 20-25 ]پیوند[

تحویلیان، فرحناز.، برجعلی، احمد.، مشایخ، مریم.، و کراسکیان، آدیس. (1400). اثربخشی آموزشی سرمایه روان‌شناختی مثبت‌گرا بر خودتنظیمی و سبک زندگی توسعه دهنده سلامت در دختران نوجوان افسرده. خانواده درمانی کاربردی. 2(2): 86-102. ]پیوند[

فاضلی‌کبریا، مهناز.، حسن زاده، رمضان.، میرزاییان، بهرام.، و خواجوندخوشلی، افسانه. (1398). اثربخشی آموزش روان‌شناسی مثبت‌گرا با رویکرد اسلامی بر سرمایه‌های روان‌شناختی بیماران قلبی-عروقی. نشریه دین و سلام. 7(1): 39-48. ]پیوند[

کاظمی، آذر.، گل پرور، محسن.، و آتش پور، حمید. (1399). مقایسه تاثیر درمان پذیرش خود ذهن‌آگاهانه و روان‌درمانی مثبت‌نگر بر سرمایه عاطفی دانش‌آموزان دختر دارای افسردگی. ماهنامه علمی پژوهشی فیض. 24(2): 198-208. ]پیوند[

محسنی، صباح.، و عقیلی، سید مجتبی. (1395). اثربخشی روان‌درمانی مثبت‌گرا بر سرمایه‌های روان‌شناختی دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد گرگان. اولین کنفرانس بین المللی نوآوری و تحقیق در علوم تربیتی، مدیریت و روانشناسی، تهران. ]پیوند[

نساج، فرزانه. (1393). پیشبینی رضایت شغلی، تعهد سازمانی و اشتیاق شغلی از طریق سرمایه روانشناختی. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی‌ارشد روانشناسی صنعتی و سازمانی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اصفهان خوراسگان. ]پیوند[

یزدان­بخش، کامران.، مرادی، آسیه.، و بسطامی، احسان. (1397). رابطه سرمایه روان‌شناختی و سخت‌رویی با فرسودگی شغلی. رویش روان شناسی.۷(۸) :۲۰۲-۱۸۱. ]پیوند[

Allen, A. (2006). Cognitive-behavior therapy and other psychosocial interventions in the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 36(7): 474–479. [link]

Atsa’am, D. D., Kuset, Bodur. E. (2020). Knowledge mining on the association between psychological capital and educational qualifications among hospitality employees. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(9):1073-1077. [link]

Backmann, J., Weiss, M., Schippers, M. C., & Hoegl, M. (2019). Personality factors, student resiliency, and the moderating role of achievement values in study progress. Learning and Individual Differences, 72, 39–48. [link]

Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., and Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13:119. [link]

Carmona-Halty, M., Salanova, M., Llorens, S., and Schaufeli, W. B. (2019). Linking positive emotions and academic performance: the mediated role of academic psychological capital and academic engagement. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues., 40, 2938–2947. [link]

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6th ed.). London and New York, NY: Routledge. [link]

Datu, J. A. D., King, R. B., & Valdez, J. P. M. (2018). Psychological capital bolsters motivation, engagement, and achievement: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. J. Posit. Psychol. 13, 260–270. [link]

Datu, J. A. D., & Valdez, J. P. M. (2019). Psychological capital is associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and school belongingness. School Psychology International, 40(4), 331–346. [link]

Didonna, F. (2009). Mindfulness and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Developing a way to trust and validate one's internal experience. In F. Didonna (Ed.), Clinical handbook of mindfulness, 189–219. [link]

Dobson, K. S., Hollon, S. D., Dimidjian, S., Schmaling, K. B., Kohlenberg, R. J., Gallop, R., et al. (2008). Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the prevention of relapse and recurrence in major depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(3): 468-477. [link]

McCay, E., & Frankford, R., & Beanlands, H., & Sidani, S., & Gucciardi, E., & Blidner, R., & Danaher, A., & Carter, C., & Aiello, A. (2016). Evaluation of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy to Reduce Psychological Distress and to Promote Well-Being, SAGE Open, 6(3): 1-12. [link]

Esfandiar Y, Rahnejat AM, Mousavi M, Sabayan B. (2020). The Effectiveness of Resiliency Training on Reduction of Emotional Stress and Self-mutilation Attempt in Soldiers in Tehran, Iran in 2018. Journal of Military Medicine, 22(1):27-35. [link]

Freres, D. R., & Gillham, J. E. (2006). The promotion of optimism and health. Handbook of Personality and Health, 314-335. [link]

Forgeard, M. J. C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2012). Seeing the glass half full. A review of the causes and consequences of optimism. Pratiques psychologiques, 18(2):107–120. [link]

Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Freres, D. R., Lascher, M., Litzinger, S., Shatte, A. J., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence. A Pilot of a Parent Intervention Component. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(3): 323-348. [link]

Gillham, J.E., Reivich, K.J., Freres, D.R., Chaplin, T.M., Shatté, A.J., Samuels, B., Elkon, A.G., Litzinger, S., Lascher, M., Gallop, R., & Seligman, M.E. (2007). School based prevention of deppresive symptoms. A randomized controlled study of the effectiveness and specificity of the penn resiliency program, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(1): 9-19. [link]

Gillham, J. E., Brunwasser, S. M., & Freres, D. R. (2008). Preventing depression in early adolescence: The Penn Resiliency Program. In J. R. Z. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents, 309–322. The Guilford Press. [link]

Goldsmith, A. H., Darity, J. W., Veum, J. R. (1998). Race cognitive skills, psychological capital and wages. In Leading Issues in Black Political Economy. Routledge.185-198. [link]

Hoppen, TH., Morina, N. (2020). Efficacy of positive psychotherapy in reducing negative and enhancing positive psychological outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open, 11(9). [link]

Horowitz, J.L., Garber, J., Ciesla, J.A., Young, J.F., & Mufson, L. (2007). Prevention of depressive symptoms in adolescents: A randomized trial of cognitive-behavioural and interpersonal prevention programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(5): 693–706. [link]

Kahler, C. W., Spillane, N. S., Day, A., Clerkin, E. M., Parks, A., Leventhal, A. M., & Brown, R. A. (2014). Positive psychotherapy for smoking cessation: Treatment development, feasibility, and preliminary results. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(1):19–29. [link]

Kang, X., Wu, Y., & Li, L. (2021). Validation and Prediction of the School Psychological Capital Among Chinese College Students. Frontiers in Psychology. [link]

King, L. A. (2001). The health benefits of writing about life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(7): 798–807. [link]

King, R. B., Pitliya, R. J., & Datu, J. A. (2020). Psychological capital drives optimal engagement via positive emotions in work and school contexts. Asian J. Soc. Psychol. 23, 457–468. [link]

Lambert, N. M., Fincham, F. D., & Stillman, T. F. (2012). Gratitude and depressive symptoms: The role of positive reframing and positive emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 26(4): 602-614. [link]

Li, L., & Li, M. (2020). Effects of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Capital, Depression, and Procrastination of the Youth Demographic. Iranian journal of public health, 49(9): 1692–1700. [link]

Luthans, F., Luthans, K.W. & Luthans, B.C. (2004). Positive Psychological Capital: Beyond Human and Social Capital. Business Horizons, 47, 45-50. [link]

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge. New York: Oxford Univerisity Press. [link]

Lyubomirsky, S., Dickerhoof, R., Boehm, J. K., & Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Becoming happier takes both a will and a proper way: An experimental longitudinal intervention to boost well-being. Emotion, 11(2): 391–402. [link]

Mongrain, M., & Anselmo- Matthews, T. (2012). Do positive psychology exercises work? A replication of Seligman et al. (2005). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(4): 382-389. [link]

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Keywords


ابوالمعالی، خدیجه.، و شجاعیان، مریم. (1397). اثربخشی شناخت درمانی مبتنی بر ذهن‌آگاهی بر افزایش سرمایه روان شناختی دانش آموزان مقطع متوسطه. مطالعات روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی. زمستان، 36، 21 - 32. ]پیوند[
آتش پور، سیدحمید.، عبدیان، طاهره.، و قاسمی، حمیده. (1400). آموزش اثربخشی ذهن‌آگاهی بر سرمایه روان‌شناختی، شادکامی و رضایت از زندگی در زنان خانه‌دار. مجله پیشرفتهای نوین در علوم رفتاری. ۵ (۵۳):1-15. ]پیوند[
بوالهری، جعفر.، احسان منش، مجتبی.، و کریمی کیسمی، عیسی. (1379). بررسی رابطه بین عوامل تنش زا, میزان توکل به خدا و نشانگان استرس در دانشجویان پزشکی. مجله روانپزشکی و روانشناسی بالینی ایران (اندیشه و رفتار). 6(1): 20-25 ]پیوند[
تحویلیان، فرحناز.، برجعلی، احمد.، مشایخ، مریم.، و کراسکیان، آدیس. (1400). اثربخشی آموزشی سرمایه روان‌شناختی مثبت‌گرا بر خودتنظیمی و سبک زندگی توسعه دهنده سلامت در دختران نوجوان افسرده. خانواده درمانی کاربردی. 2(2): 86-102. ]پیوند[
فاضلی‌کبریا، مهناز.، حسن زاده، رمضان.، میرزاییان، بهرام.، و خواجوندخوشلی، افسانه. (1398). اثربخشی آموزش روان‌شناسی مثبت‌گرا با رویکرد اسلامی بر سرمایه‌های روان‌شناختی بیماران قلبی-عروقی. نشریه دین و سلام. 7(1): 39-48. ]پیوند[
کاظمی، آذر.، گل پرور، محسن.، و آتش پور، حمید. (1399). مقایسه تاثیر درمان پذیرش خود ذهن‌آگاهانه و روان‌درمانی مثبت‌نگر بر سرمایه عاطفی دانش‌آموزان دختر دارای افسردگی. ماهنامه علمی پژوهشی فیض. 24(2): 198-208. ]پیوند[
محسنی، صباح.، و عقیلی، سید مجتبی. (1395). اثربخشی روان‌درمانی مثبت‌گرا بر سرمایه‌های روان‌شناختی دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد گرگان. اولین کنفرانس بین المللی نوآوری و تحقیق در علوم تربیتی، مدیریت و روانشناسی، تهران. ]پیوند[
نساج، فرزانه. (1393). پیشبینی رضایت شغلی، تعهد سازمانی و اشتیاق شغلی از طریق سرمایه روانشناختی. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی‌ارشد روانشناسی صنعتی و سازمانی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اصفهان خوراسگان. ]پیوند[
یزدان­بخش، کامران.، مرادی، آسیه.، و بسطامی، احسان. (1397). رابطه سرمایه روان‌شناختی و سخت‌رویی با فرسودگی شغلی. رویش روان شناسی.۷(۸) :۲۰۲-۱۸۱. ]پیوند[
Allen, A. (2006). Cognitive-behavior therapy and other psychosocial interventions in the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 36(7): 474–479. [link]
Atsa’am, D. D., Kuset, Bodur. E. (2020). Knowledge mining on the association between psychological capital and educational qualifications among hospitality employees. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(9):1073-1077. [link]
Backmann, J., Weiss, M., Schippers, M. C., & Hoegl, M. (2019). Personality factors, student resiliency, and the moderating role of achievement values in study progress. Learning and Individual Differences, 72, 39–48. [link]
Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., and Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13:119. [link]
Carmona-Halty, M., Salanova, M., Llorens, S., and Schaufeli, W. B. (2019). Linking positive emotions and academic performance: the mediated role of academic psychological capital and academic engagement. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues., 40, 2938–2947. [link]
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6th ed.). London and New York, NY: Routledge. [link]
Datu, J. A. D., King, R. B., & Valdez, J. P. M. (2018). Psychological capital bolsters motivation, engagement, and achievement: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. J. Posit. Psychol. 13, 260–270. [link]
Datu, J. A. D., & Valdez, J. P. M. (2019). Psychological capital is associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and school belongingness. School Psychology International, 40(4), 331–346. [link]
Didonna, F. (2009). Mindfulness and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Developing a way to trust and validate one's internal experience. In F. Didonna (Ed.), Clinical handbook of mindfulness, 189–219. [link]
Dobson, K. S., Hollon, S. D., Dimidjian, S., Schmaling, K. B., Kohlenberg, R. J., Gallop, R., et al. (2008). Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the prevention of relapse and recurrence in major depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(3): 468-477. [link]
McCay, E., & Frankford, R., & Beanlands, H., & Sidani, S., & Gucciardi, E., & Blidner, R., & Danaher, A., & Carter, C., & Aiello, A. (2016). Evaluation of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy to Reduce Psychological Distress and to Promote Well-Being, SAGE Open, 6(3): 1-12. [link]
Esfandiar Y, Rahnejat AM, Mousavi M, Sabayan B. (2020). The Effectiveness of Resiliency Training on Reduction of Emotional Stress and Self-mutilation Attempt in Soldiers in Tehran, Iran in 2018. Journal of Military Medicine, 22(1):27-35. [link]
Freres, D. R., & Gillham, J. E. (2006). The promotion of optimism and health. Handbook of Personality and Health, 314-335. [link]
Forgeard, M. J. C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2012). Seeing the glass half full. A review of the causes and consequences of optimism. Pratiques psychologiques, 18(2):107–120. [link]
Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Freres, D. R., Lascher, M., Litzinger, S., Shatte, A. J., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence. A Pilot of a Parent Intervention Component. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(3): 323-348. [link]
Gillham, J.E., Reivich, K.J., Freres, D.R., Chaplin, T.M., Shatté, A.J., Samuels, B., Elkon, A.G., Litzinger, S., Lascher, M., Gallop, R., & Seligman, M.E. (2007). School based prevention of deppresive symptoms. A randomized controlled study of the effectiveness and specificity of the penn resiliency program, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(1): 9-19. [link]
Gillham, J. E., Brunwasser, S. M., & Freres, D. R. (2008). Preventing depression in early adolescence: The Penn Resiliency Program. In J. R. Z. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents, 309–322. The Guilford Press. [link]
Goldsmith, A. H., Darity, J. W., Veum, J. R. (1998). Race cognitive skills, psychological capital and wages. In Leading Issues in Black Political Economy. Routledge.185-198. [link]
Hoppen, TH., Morina, N. (2020). Efficacy of positive psychotherapy in reducing negative and enhancing positive psychological outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open, 11(9). [link]
Horowitz, J.L., Garber, J., Ciesla, J.A., Young, J.F., & Mufson, L. (2007). Prevention of depressive symptoms in adolescents: A randomized trial of cognitive-behavioural and interpersonal prevention programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(5): 693–706. [link]
Kahler, C. W., Spillane, N. S., Day, A., Clerkin, E. M., Parks, A., Leventhal, A. M., & Brown, R. A. (2014). Positive psychotherapy for smoking cessation: Treatment development, feasibility, and preliminary results. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(1):19–29. [link]
Kang, X., Wu, Y., & Li, L. (2021). Validation and Prediction of the School Psychological Capital Among Chinese College Students. Frontiers in Psychology. [link]
King, L. A. (2001). The health benefits of writing about life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(7): 798–807. [link]
King, R. B., Pitliya, R. J., & Datu, J. A. (2020). Psychological capital drives optimal engagement via positive emotions in work and school contexts. Asian J. Soc. Psychol. 23, 457–468. [link]
Lambert, N. M., Fincham, F. D., & Stillman, T. F. (2012). Gratitude and depressive symptoms: The role of positive reframing and positive emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 26(4): 602-614. [link]
Li, L., & Li, M. (2020). Effects of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Capital, Depression, and Procrastination of the Youth Demographic. Iranian journal of public health, 49(9): 1692–1700. [link]
Luthans, F., Luthans, K.W. & Luthans, B.C. (2004). Positive Psychological Capital: Beyond Human and Social Capital. Business Horizons, 47, 45-50. [link]
Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge. New York: Oxford Univerisity Press. [link]
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