ساخت و اعتبارسنجی پرسشنامه سبک‌های اسناد بیماران مبتلا به کووید-19

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی، پژوهشگاه حوزه و دانشگاه، قم، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشگاه بین المللی المصطفی (ص)، قم، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی، موسسه آموزش و پژوهشی امام خمینی (ره)، قم، ایران

10.52547/apsy.2021.223385.1121

چکیده

هدف: هدف این پژوهش ساخت و اعتبارسنجی پرسشنامه سبک‌های اسناد بیماران مبتلا به کووید-19 بود. روش: روش پژوهش توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری شامل بیماران مبتلا به کووید-19 دو استان قم و تهران بود که به شیوه نمونه‌گیری در دسترس تعداد 292 نفر آزمون گرفته شد. یافته‌ها: جهت ارزیابی روایی محتوا، حداقل مقدار قابل‌قبول برای ضریب شاخص روایی محتوا ((CVI برابر با 79/. و حداقل مقدار قابل قبول برای شاخص نسبت روایی محتوا (CVR) برابر با 62/. مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. نتایج روایی ملاک به شیوه همگرا، بین پرسشنامه پژوهش حاضر و مقیاس هم ارز (734/0) و در سطح 01/0 معنادار بدست آمد. برای بررسی روایی سازه، نتایج همسانی درونی، به شیوه همبستگی هر یک از سؤال‌های آزمون و هر کدام از عامل‌ها با نمره کل در سطح (01/0)، معنادار بود. روایی سازه به شیوه تحلیل عاملی، به ترتیب هفت عامل «اسناد خداباورانه مثبت»، «اسناد بهبودی خداباورانه»، «اسناد شخصی شده»، «اسناد خداباورانه منفی»، «اسناد به دیگران»، «اسناد طبیعت گرایانه» و «اسناد بهبودی غیر خداباورانه» بدست آمد، که در مجموع (696/48) درصد واریانس کل پرسشنامه را برآورد می‌کند. اعتبار پرسشنامه در آزمون باز آزمون (678/0)، در روش دو نیمه سازی (808/0) و مقدار ضریب آلفای کرونباخ کل پرسشنامه (888/0)، بدست آمد که بیانگر همسانی درونی خوب این پرسشنامه است. نتیجه‌گیری: بنابراین نتایج بدست آمده حاکی از قابلیت پرسشنامه سبک‌های اسناد بیماران مبتلا به کووید-19 جهت استفاده در تحقیقات پژوهشی و خدمات به بیماران کرونایی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development and validation of a questionnaire of attribution styles of patients with Covid-19

نویسندگان [English]

  • ali bayat 1
  • Mohammadsadiq shojaei 2
  • Ahad omidi 3
1 PhD student of psychology, hawzah and University Research Institute, Qom, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Al-Mustafa International University, Qom, Iran
3 PhD student of psychology, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute, Qom, Iran
چکیده [English]

Aim:The purpose of this study was to Development and validate a questionnaire of attribution styles of patients with Covid-19. Method: The research method was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population included patients with Covid-19 in Qom and Tehran provinces. 292 people were tested by convenience sampling method. Results: To evaluate the content validity, the minimum acceptable value for the Content validity index (CVI) is equal to ./79 And the minimum acceptable value for the Content validity ratio  index (CVR) is equal to ./62 Was used. The results of the criterion validity were obtained convergently between the questionnaire of the present study and the equivalence scale (0.734) and  was significant at the level of 0.01. Structural validity by factor analysis, respectively seven factors,"positive theistic attribution ", " theistic recovery attribution", "personalized attribution", "negative theistic attribution", "attribution to others", "naturalistic attribution" and " Non - theistic improvement attribution", which estimates (48.696) percent of the total variance of the questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was obtained in the test- retest (0.678) in the two halving method (0.808) and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the whole questionnaire (0.888), which indicates the good internal consistency of this questionnaire. Conclusion: Therefore, the results indicate the ability of the questionnaire of attributionstyles of patients with Covid-19 for use in research and services to Covid-19  patients.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Validation
  • Attribution Questionnaire
  • Attribution Styles
  • Covid-19
  • Religious Attribution
Affleck, G., Tennen, H., Croog, S., &  Levine, S. (1987). Causal attribution, perceived benefits, and morbidity after a heart attack: an 8-year study. J Consult Clin Psychol; 55:29-35. {link}
Allen, G., & Dietrich, A. (1991). Student difference in attribution and motivation. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Western Psychological Research Association, Chicago, April an empirical approach. Guilford Press.‏{link}
Bayley, J., & Hayes, J. A. (1998). Religious attributions of responsibility: A review of empirical literature and development of an instrument. Counseling and Values, 43(1), 49–62. {link}
Bridges, K. R. (2001). Using attributional style to predict academic performance: How does it compare to traditional methods? Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 723-730. {link}
Bulman, R. J., & Wortman, C. B. (1977). Attributions of blame and coping in the "real world": Severe accident victims react to their lot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(5), 351–363. {link}
Carpentier, M. Y., Mullins, L. L., Wolfe-Christensen, C., & Chaney, J. M. (2008). The relationship of parent self-focused negative attributions to ratings of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress. Families, Systems, & Health, 26(2), 147–163. {link}
Chase, M. (2001). Children’s self-efficacy, motivational intentions and attribution in physical education and sport. Journal of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72 (1), 47-54. {link}
Cheng, H., & Furnham, A. (2001). Attributional style and personality as predictors of happiness and mental health. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 2(3), 307–327. {link}
Corr, P. J., & Gray, J. A. (1995). Attributional style, socialization and cognitive ability as predictors of sales success: A predictive validity study. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 241-252. {link}
D’Angelo, C.M., Mrug, S., Grossoehme, D., Schwebel, D, C., Reynolds, N., &  Reynolds, K, G. (2019). Coping, Attributions, and Health Functioning Among Adolescents with Chronic Illness and Their Parents: Reciprocal Relations Over Time; Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 26, 495–506. {link}
DeNeve, K. M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: a meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological bulletin, 124(2), 197–229. {link}
Dua, J. R. (1995). Retrospective and prospective psychological and physical health as a function of negative effect and attributional style. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 507-518. {link}
Fincham, F. D., & Bradbury, T. N. (1992). Assessing attributions in marriage: The relationship attribution measure. Personality and Social Psychology, 62(3): 457- 468. {link}
Furze G., Lewin B. (2000). Causal attributions for angina: results of an interview study. Corona Health Care; 4:130-134. {link}
Gall, T. L., & Bilodeau, C. (2017). "Why me?" - women's use of spiritual causal attributions in making sense of breast cancer. Psychology & health, 32(6), 709–727. {link}
Garey, E., Chesser, S., Hood, R. W., & Forbes, S. A. (2018). The Religious Attribution Scale: Further validation with an American sample. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 21(9-10), 926–933. {link}
Gilutz, H., Cristal, N., Bar-On, D., Billing, E., & Rehnquist, N. (1991). The relationship between causal attribution and rehabilitation in patients after their first myocardial infarction. A cross cultural study. European heart journal, 12(8), 883-888.‏ {link}
Garey, E., Siregar, J. R., Hood, R. W., Jr., Agustiani, H., & Setiono, K. (2016). Development and validation of Religious Attribution Scale: In association with religiosity and meaning in life among economically disadvantaged adolescents in Indonesia. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 19(8), 818–832. {link}
Gorsuch, R. L., & Smith, C. S. (1983). Attributions of responsibility to God: An interaction of religious beliefs and outcomes. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 340-352.‏ {link}
Grum, B.K., Stephen, J., Mackenzie, G., Doll, R., Barroetavena, M.C., & Cadell, S. (2008). Understanding Canadian Punjabi-speaking south Asian women's experience of Breast cancer: A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing studies. 45 (2), 266-276. {link}
Guion, K., & Mrug, S. (2012). The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 19(3), 262–269. {link}
Hall, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (2006). Relationship dissolution following infidelity: The roles of attributions and forgiveness. Journal of social and clinical psychology, 25(5), 508-522.‏ {link}
Heider, F. (1958). The naive analysis of action. In F. Heider, The psychology of interpersonal relations (pp. 79–124). John Wiley & Sons Inc. {link}
Hirschy, A. J., & Morris, J. R. (2002). Individual differences in attributional style: The relational influence of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and sex role identity. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(2), 183-196.‏ {link}
Houston, O. W. (1994). Gloomy but smarter: The academic consequences of attributional style. British Journal of Social psychology, 33, 433-441. {link}
Kelley, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 15, pp. 129–238). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. {link}
Kelley, H. H. (1973). The processes of causal attribution. American psychologist, 28(2), 107.‏ {link}
Lowery, B. J., Jacobsen, B. S., & Ducette, J. (1993). Causal attribution, control, and adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 10(4), 37-53.‏{link}
Lupfer, M. B., Brock, K. F., & DePaola, S. J. (1992), The Use of Secular and Religious Attributions to Explain Everyday Behavior, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 486-503. {link}  
Mullins, L. L., Chaney, J. M., Pace, T. M., & Hartman, V. L. (1997). Illness uncertainty, attributional style, and psychological adjustment in older adolescents and young adults with asthma. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22(6), 871–880. {link}
Mumma, C., McCorkle, R. (1982–83). Causal attribution and life-threatening disease. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 12(4): 311–319. {link}
Murphy, B., Worcester, M., Higgins, R., Le Grande, M., Larritt, P., & Goble, A. (2005). Causal attributions for coronary heart disease among female cardiac patients. Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, 25(3), 135–145. {link}
Pargament, K. I., Ensing, D. S., Falgout, K., Olsen, H., Reilly, B., Van Haitsma, K., & Warren, R. (1990). God help me: (I): Religious coping efforts as predictors of the outcomes to significant negative life events. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 793–824. {link}
Park, C. L., & Cohen, L. (1993). Religious and nonreligious coping with the death of a friend. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17, 561–577. {link}
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984) Causal explanations as risk factors for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347-374. {link}
Peterson, C., Semel. A., Von Beayer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The attribution style questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 229- 286. {link}
Roesch, S. C., & Weiner, B. (2001). A meta-analytic review of coping with illness: do causal attributions matter? Journal of psychosomatic research, 50(4), 205–219. {link}
Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1), 1–28. {link}
Sanjuán, P., Pérez, A., Rueda, B., & Ruiz, Á. (2008). Interactive effects of attributional styles for positive and negative events on psychological distress. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(2), 187–190. {link}
Shultz, K. S., Whitney, D. J., & Zickar, M. J. (2020). Measurement theory in action: Case studies and exercises. Routledge.‏ {link}
Shortz, J. L., & Worthington, E. L. (1994). Young adults’ recall of religiosity, attributions, and coping in parental divorce. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33, 172–179. {link}
Smith, B. W., Pargament, K. I., Brant, C., & Oliver, J. M. (2000). Noah revisited: Religious coping by church members and the impact of the 1993 Midwest flood. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 169–186. {link}
Spangenberg, J. J., & Lategan, T. P. (1993). Coping, androgyny, and attributional style. South African Journal of Psychology, 23(4), 195–203. {link}
Spilka, B., & Schmidt, G. (1983). General Attribution Theory for the Psychology of Religion: The Influence of Event-Character on Attributions to God. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 22, 326. {link}
Spilka, B., Shaver, P. R., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1985). A general attribution theory for the psychology of religion, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion," 24, pp. 1–2. {link}
Taylor, S. E., Lichtman, R. R., & Wood, J. V. (1984). Attributions, beliefs about control, and adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of personality and social psychology, 46(3), 489.‏ {link}
Volpe, N., & Levin, R. (1998). Attributional style, dreaming and depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(6), 1051-1061.‏ {link}
Watson, P., Morris, R., & Hood, R. (1990). Attributional Complexity, Religious Orientation, and Indiscriminate Proreligiousness. Review of Religious Research, 32(2), 110-121. {link}
Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological review, 92(4), 548.‏ {link}
Wong, P. T., & Weiner, B. (1981). When people ask "why" questions, and the heuristics of attributional search. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40(4), 650–663. {link}