بررسی تحولی اثر خلق مثبت بر انعطاف پذیری شناختی و رابطه آن با خلاقیت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی پژوهشکده علوم شناختی و مغز

2 استادیار گروه روانشناسی شناختی، پژوهشکده علوم شناختی و مغز، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 پژوهشکده علوم شناختی و مغز دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

10.52547/apsy.2021.224313.1196

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: خلق مثبت و انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی از عوامل تقویت کننده خلاقیت شناخته‌ می‌شوند. مطالعه حاضر با این فرض که خلق مثبت احتمالاً با اثرگذاری بر انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی موجب ارتقا خلاقیت می‌شود، این مهم را در بازه سنی 8 تا  12 سال بررسی کرده است. روش پژوهش: جامعة پژوهش شامل کلیه دانش آموزان دختر 8 تا ۱۲ ساله مناطق 4 و ۸ شهر تهران بودند. از جامعه پژوهش 60  نفر در دو گروه سنی ۸ تا ۱۰ (76/0±80/8) و ۱۰ تا ۱۲ (76/0±20/11) سال به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شد. پس از جایگذاری تصادفی افراد در گروه‌های پژوهش بر مبنای حالت خلقی القا شده و سن آن‌ها، افراد با استفاده از نسخه کامپیوتری آزمون کارت‌های ویسکانسین (1948) و آزمون تفکر خلاق تورنس (1974)، مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. داده‌های گردآوری شده با استفاده از آزمون‌های آماری تی مستقل، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، یو مان-ویتنی و مدل رگرسیونی متغیر میانجی هیز (2017) تجزیه‌وتحلیل شدند. یافته‌ها: تحلیل مدل رگرسیونی نقش میانجی انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی میان حالت خلقی و نمرات افراد در آزمون خلاقیت را تأیید کرده و نشان داد خلق مثبت موجب بهبود انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی افراد و بواسطه آن عملکرد بهتر آن‌ها در آزمون خلاقیت می‌گردد. نتیجه‌گیری: یافته‌های این پژوهش به عنوان شاهدی علمی اهمیت حالات خلقی و تاثیر آن بر میزان انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی و عملکرد خلاقانه‌ در کودکان را نشان می‌دهد و بر ضرورت در نظر گرفتن این مسئله در محیط‌های آموزشی با هدف ایجاد و تقویت تفکر خلاقانه در کودکان تأکید داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developmental Investigation of Positive Mood Effects on Cognitive Flexibility and Its Relationship to Creativity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elahe Najafali ghandehari 1
  • Setareh Mokhtari 2
  • Khatereh Borhani 3
1 Shahid beheshti university Institute for cognitive and brain sciences
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University
3 Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Behesti University
چکیده [English]

Aim: Positive mood and cognitive flexibility are known to enhance creativity. The present study examines this important issue in the age range of 8 to 12 years, assuming that positive mood is likely to promote creativity by affecting cognitive flexibility. Methods: The study population included all female students aged 8 to 12 years in districts 4 and 8 of Tehran. From the research population, 60 people in two age groups of 8 to 10 (8/80 ± 0/76) and 10 to 12 (11/20 ± 0/76) years were selected by available sampling method. After randomly placing individuals in research groups based on the induced mood and age, individuals were assessed using the computerized version of Wisconsin Card Sorting (1948) and the Torrance Creative Thinking (1974) test. The collected data were analyzed using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney U and Hayes mediator regression model (2018). Results: Regression model analysis confirmed the mediating role of cognitive flexibility between mood and creativity, where positive mood improves individuals' cognitive flexibility and thereby enhances performance in creativity test. Conclusion: The findings of this study as evidence of the importance of mood on the level of cognitive flexibility and creative performance in children emphasized the need to consider this issue in educational settings with the aim of creating and strengthening creative thinking in children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cognitive flexibility
  • Creativity
  • Positive Mood
  • Developmental Stages
بیگدلی، ایمان اله؛ بادین، ماریه و صباحی، پرویز. (1395). مقایسه انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی، نظریه ذهن و حافظه کاری در دانشجویان دارای نشانه‌های وسواسی- جبری و گروه بهنجار. تازه‌های علوم شناختی. ۱۸ (۴) :۲۴-37. {پیوند}
شهیم، سیما (1373). بررسی فرم‌های کوتاه مقیاس وکسلر کودکان برای استفاده در ایران.  علوم اجتماعی و انسانی دانشگاه شیراز. 9 (2): 67-79. {پیوند}
صادقی، احمد؛ ربیعی، محمد؛ عابدی، محمدرضا. (1390). رواسازی واعتباریابی چهارمین ویرایش مقیاس هوش وکسلر. مجله روانشناسی تحولی. 7 (28): 377-386. {پیوند}
گنجی، کامران.، نیوشا، بهشته و هدایتی، فاطمه. (1391). تاثیر آموزش خلاقیت به مادران بر افزایش خلاقیت. کودکان پیش دبستانی. ابتکار و خلاقیت در علوم انسانی، 2(2): 93-71. {پیوند}
نظری، محمدعلی؛ نبی زاده چیانه، قسیم؛ واحدی، شهرام؛ رستمی، محمد. (1391). بررسی اعتبار و روایی آزمون خودارزیابی تصاویر آدمک. فصلنامه علمی-پژوهشی در سلامت روانشناختی. 6(2): 52-61. {پیوند}
 
Alfonso-Benlliure, V., & Santos, M. R. (2016). Creativity development trajectories in Elementary Education: Differences in divergent and evaluative skills. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 19, 160-174. [link]
Arán Filippetti, V., & Krumm, G. (2020). A hierarchical model of cognitive flexibility in children: Extending the relationship between flexibility, creativity and academic achievement. Child Neuropsychology, 1-31. [link]
Beaty, R. E., Thakral, P. P., Madore, K. P., Benedek, M., & Schacter, D. L. (2018). Core network contributions to remembering the past, imagining the future, and thinking creatively. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 30(12), 1939-1951. [link]
Benedek, M., Franz, F., Heene, M., & Neubauer, A. C. (2012). Differential effects of cognitive inhibition and intelligence on creativity. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(4), 480-485. [link]
Campion, S. P. (2013). Psychophysiological, behavioral, and self-reported validity of a video-mediated mood induction in a preschool-aged sample (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia). [link]
Charles, R. E., & Runco, M. A. (2001). Developmental trends in the evaluative and divergent thinking of children. Creativity Research Journal, 13(3-4), 417-437. [link]
Chen, B., Hu, W., & Plucker, J. A. (2016). The effect of mood on problem finding in scientific creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 50(4), 308-320. [link]
Claxton, A. F., Pannells, T. C., & Rhoads, P. A. (2005). Developmental trends in the creativity of school-age children. Creativity Research Journal, 17(4), 327-335. [link]
Daros, A. R., Williams, G. E., Jung, S., Turabi, M., Uliaszek, A. A., & Ruocco, A. C. (2018). More is not always better: Strategies to regulate negative mood induction in women with borderline personality disorder and depressive and anxiety disorders. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 9(6), 530. [link]
Davis, M. A. (2009). Understanding the relationship between mood and creativity: A meta-analysis. organizational behavior and human decision processes, 108(1), 25-38. [link]
De Dreu, C. K., Baas, M., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). Hedonic tone and activation level in the mood-creativity link: toward a dual pathway to creativity model. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 94(5), 739. [link]
De Dreu, C. K., Nijstad, B. A., Bechtoldt, M. N., & Baas, M. (2011). Group creativity and innovation: A motivated information processing perspective. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5(1), 81. [link]
De Rooij, A., & Jones, S. (2013, June). Mood and creativity: An appraisal tendency perspective. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Creativity & Cognition (pp. 362-365). ACM. [link]
Derryberry, D. (1993). Attentional consequences of outcome-related motivational states: Congruent, incongruent, and focusing effects. Motivation and Emotion, 17(2), 65-89. [link]
Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168. [link]
Einöther, S. J., Baas, M., Rowson, M., & Giesbrecht, T. (2015). Investigating the effects of tea, water and a positive affect induction on mood and creativity. Food Quality and Preference, 39, 56-61. [link]
Estrada, C. A., Isen, A. M., & Young, M. J. (1997). Positive affect facilitates integration of information and decreases anchoring in reasoning among physicians. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 72(1), 117-135. [link]
Feldstein, S. N., Keller, F. R., Portman, R. E., Durham, R. L., Klebe, K. J., & Davis, H. P. (1999). A comparison of computerized and standard versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 13(3), 303-313. [link]
Fortuny, L. I. A., & Heaton, R. K. (1996). Standard versus computerized administration of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10(4), 419-424. [link]
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218. [link]
Fredrickson, B. L. (2003). The value of positive emotions: The emerging science of positive psychology is coming to understand why it's good to feel good. American Scientist, 91(4), 330-335. [link]
Gardner, H. E. (1973). The arts and human development A psychological study of the artistic process. [link]
Girn, M., Mills, C., Roseman, L., Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Christoff, K. (2020). Updating the dynamic framework of thought: Creativity and psychedelics. Neuroimage, 213, 116726. [link]
Grant, D. A., & Berg, E. (1948). A behavioral analysis of degree of reinforcement and ease of shifting to new responses in a Weigl-type card-sorting problem. Journal Of Experimental Psychology, 38(4), 404. [link]
Guilford, J. P. (1967). Creativity: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 1(1), 3-14. [link]
Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford publications. [link]
He, L., Zhuang, K., Li, Y., Sun, J., Meng, J., Zhu, W., ... & Qiu, J. (2019). Brain flexibility associated with need for cognition contributes to creative achievement. Psychophysiology, 56(12), e13464. [link]
Higgins, E. T. (2005). Value from regulatory fit. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(4), 209-213. [link]
Hirt, E. R., Devers, E. E., & McCrea, S. M. (2008). I want to be creative: Exploring the role of hedonic contingency theory in the positive mood-cognitive flexibility link. Journal Of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 214. [link]
Isen, A. M. (1999). Positive affect. In T. Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.), The Handbook of Cognition And Emotion (pp. 521–539). Sussex, England: Wiley. [link]
Isen, A. M. (2004). Some Perspectives on Positive Feelings and Emotions: Positive Affect Facilitates Thinking and Problem Solving. In Feelings and Emotions: The Amsterdam Symposium, Jun, 2001, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Cambridge University Press. [link]
Isen, A. M. (2008). Some ways in which positive affect influences decision making and problem solving. Handbook of Emotions, 3, 548-573. [link]
Isen, A. M., & Reeve, J. (2005). The influence of positive affect on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: Facilitating enjoyment of play, responsible work behavior, and self-control. Motivation and Emotion, 29(4), 295-323. [link]
Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1122-1131. [link]
Khalil, R., Godde, B., & Karim, A. A. (2019). The link between creativity, cognition, emotion and underlying neural mechanisms. Frontiers in neural circuits, 13, 18. [link]
Koizumi, K., Ueda, K., Li, Z., & Nakao, M. (2020). Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on brain networks related to creative thinking. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, 431. [link]
Krumm, G., Filippetti, V. A., & Gutierrez, M. (2018). The contribution of executive functions to creativity in children: What is the role of crystallized and fluid intelligence? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 29, 185-195. [link]
Kuhel, K. A. (2005). Preservice teacher perceptions of a multicultural field experience activity. University of Florida. [link]
Lang, P. J. (1980). Self-assessment manikin. Gainesville, FL: The Center for Research in Psychophysiology, University of Florida. [link]
Lau, S., & Cheung, P. C. (2010). Developmental trends of creativity: What twists of turn do boys and girls take at different grades? Creativity Research Journal, 22(3), 329-336. [link]
Lee, C. S., & Therriault, D. J. (2013). The cognitive underpinnings of creative thought: A latent variable analysis exploring the roles of intelligence and working memory in three creative thinking processes. Intelligence, 41(5), 306-320. [link]
Leen, C. C., Hong, H., Kwan, F. F. H., & Ying, T. W. (2014). Creative and critical thinking in Singapore schools. Singapore: Nanyang Technological University. [link]
Lin, W. L., Tsai, P. H., Lin, H. Y., & Chen, H. C. (2014). How does emotion influence different creative performances? The mediating role of cognitive flexibility. Cognition & Emotion, 28(5), 834-844. [link]
Loong, J. (1990). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test–IBM Version. San Luis Obispo, CA: Wang Neuropsychological Laboratory. [link]
Lount Jr, R. B. (2010). The impact of positive mood on trust in interpersonal and intergroup interactions. Journal of personality and social psychology, 98(3), 420. [link]
Lubart, T. I., & Lautrey, J. (1995, August). Relationships between creative development and cognitive development. In Seventh European Conference on Developmental Psychology, Krakow, Poland. [link]
Marcusson-Clavertz, D., Kjell, O. N., Persson, S. D., & Cardeña, E. (2019). Online validation of combined mood induction procedures. PloS one, 14(6), e0217848. [link]
Medaglia, J. D., Huang, W., Karuza, E. A., Kelkar, A., Thompson-Schill, S. L., Ribeiro, A., & Bassett, D. S. (2018). Functional alignment with anatomical networks is associated with cognitive flexibility. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(2), 156-164. [link]
Mednick, S. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological Review, 69(3), 220. [link]
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126(6), 910-924. [link
Nigbur, R., & Ullsperger, M. (2020). Funny kittens: Positive mood induced via short video-clips affects error processing but not conflict control. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 147, 147-155. [link]
Nijstad, B. A., De Dreu, C. K., Rietzschel, E. F., & Baas, M. (2010). The dual pathway to creativity model: Creative ideation as a function of flexibility and persistence. European Review of Social Psychology, 21(1), 34-77. [link]
Nijstad, B. A., Stroebe, W., & Lodewijkx, H. F. (2003). Production blocking and idea generation: Does blocking interfere with cognitive processes? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(6), 531-548. [link]
Pan, X., & Yu, H. (2018). Different effects of cognitive shifting and intelligence on creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 52(3), 212-225. [link]
Parnaudeau, S., Taylor, K., Bolkan, S. S., Ward, R. D., Balsam, P. D., & Kellendonk, C. (2015). Mediodorsal thalamus hypofunction impairs flexible goal-directed behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 77(5), 445-453. [link]
Rikhye, R. V., Gilra, A., & Halassa, M. M. (2018). Thalamic regulation of switching between cortical representations enables cognitive flexibility. Nature Neuroscience, 21(12), 1753-1763. [link]
Ritter, S. M., & Ferguson, S. (2017). Happy creativity: Listening to happy music facilitates divergent thinking. PloS one, 12(9), e0182210. [link]
Ritter, S. M., Damian, R. I., Simonton, D. K., van Baaren, R. B., Strick, M., Derks, J., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2012). Diversifying experiences enhance cognitive flexibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(4), 961-964. [link]
Runco, M. A. (2007). A hierarchical framework for the study of creativity. New Horizons in Education, 55(3), 1-9. [link]
Runco, M. A., & Chand, I. (1995). Cognition and creativity. Educational Psychology Review, 7(3), 243-267. [link]
Russ, S. W. (2013). Affect and creativity: The role of affect and play in the creative process. Routledge. [link]
Russ, S. W., & Fiorelli, J. A. (2010). Developmental approaches to creativity. The Cambridge handbook of creativity, 12, 233-249. [link]
Schmitt, L. I., Wimmer, R. D., Nakajima, M., Happ, M., Mofakham, S., & Halassa, M. M. (2017). Thalamic amplification of cortical connectivity sustains attentional control. Nature, 545(7653), 219-223. [link]
Schwarz, N. (1990). Feelings as information: Informational and motivational functions of affective states. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of social behavior, Vol. 2, pp. 527–561). The Guilford Press. [link]
Scott, G., Leritz, L. E., & Mumford, M. D. (2004). The effectiveness of creativity training: A quantitative review. Creativity Research Journal, 16(4), 361-388. [link]
Shao, Y., Nijstad, B. A., & Täuber, S. (2018). Linking Self-Construal to Creativity: The Role of Approach Motivation and Cognitive Flexibility. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.19-29. [link]
Shen, W., Zhao, Y., Hommel, B., Yuan, Y., Zhang, Y., Liu, Z., & Gu, H. (2019). The impact of spontaneous and induced mood states on problem solving and memory. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 32, 66-74. [link]
Smith, G. J., & Carlsson, I. (1983). Creativity in early and middle school years. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 6(2), 167-195. [link]
Smith, G., & Carlsson, I. (1985). Creativity in middle and late school years. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 8(3), 329-343. [link]
Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. Handbook of Creativity, 1, 3-15. [link]
Torrance, E. P. (1968). A longitudinal examination of the fourth-grade slump in creativity. Gifted Child Quarterly, 12(4), 195-199. [link]
Torrance, E. P. (1968). Finding hidden talents among disadvantaged children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 12(3), 131-137. [link]
Torrance, E. P. (1974). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Directions Manual and Scoring Guide; Figural Test Booklet B. Personnel Press. [link]
Vartanian, O. (2009). Variable attention facilitates creative problem solving. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 3(1), 57-59. [link]
Vosburg, S. K. (1998). The effects of positive and negative mood on divergent-thinking performance. Creativity Research Journal, 11(2), 165-172. [link]
Wahlstrom, D., Raiford, S. E., Breaux, K. C., Zhu, J., & Weiss, L. G. (2018). The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Fourth Edition, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fifth Edition, and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test—Third Edition. Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests, and Issues, 245. [link]
Watson, D., & and Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood Psychological Bulletin. [link]
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063. [link]
Westermann, R., Spies, K., Stahl, G., & Hesse, F. W. (1996). Relative effectiveness and validity of mood induction procedures: A meta‐analysis. European Journal of social psychology, 26(4), 557-580. [link]
Winner, E. (1982). Invented worlds: The psychology of the arts. Harvard University Press. [link]